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“态度”与“能力”的博弈

(2017-10-10)

自从上世纪90年代兼任校学报英文编辑工作以来,笔者曾编辑(润色)过无数论文的英文摘要,同时还润色了100多篇英文论文。这其中有些写的比较好,有些写的比较差。印象最深的是,多年前在编辑北京大学一本科生论文的英文摘要时,我仅仅只改动了一个标点符号。

在互联网没有普及之前,特别是机器(网络)翻译软件没有问世之前,英文摘要比较差的原因主要是能力造成的,很少出现低级、低俗的错误;而在互联网普及之后,特别是形形色色的各种机器(网络)翻译软件纷纷出笼之后,英文摘要比较差,甚至非常差的主要原因却是“态度”问题造成的。有一次,我在编辑一篇博导论文的英文摘要时,发现它是彻头彻尾的机器(网络)翻译的“杰作”----词不达意,毛病百出。经笔者一番调查得知,这篇论文不是第一作者博导写的,而是由第二作者(博导的博士生)“负责”完成的,博导的博士生将翻译英文摘要的任务交给了一师弟(博导的硕士生),这位博导的硕士生把“中文摘要”放到网上一所谓的“翻译框”内,仅仅用了一、两秒时间就将其转换成了“英文”,又将这没用吹灰之力自动“翻译”好的“英文摘要”复制、粘贴到论文的后面,而且只字未改!整个过程是如此的“快速”、“省力”!这简直是对“翻译”的肆意亵渎!

在一定程度上讲,由“能力”产生的“较差”,编辑一般会理解,甚至会尽力修改;但由“态度”问题导致的“差”或“最差”就不可“饶恕”了!有一次我还发现一年轻作者将煤矿巷道通风有关的“风流”翻成“romantic”,这肯定是机器(网络软件)“翻译”的!

在这个IT时代,机器(网络)翻译软件简直是“无孔不入”。在为某一国际会议论文审稿过程中,我还发现其中有几篇论文是靠机器(网络)翻译软件翻译的,真是不可思议!

笔者遇到的“史上”最差、最低俗的译文发生在10多年前---一教授作者竟然将工程上的“可靠性”译成“dependent sex”。[我后来得知,是第二作者(这位教授的硕士研究生)“翻译”的],而且出现在题目这个“万众瞩目”的“大雅之堂”,真是令人啼笑皆非!

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翻译中的“中外”结合问题

(2017-09-18)

笔者在2015年为某一国际会议审稿时,发现国内一学者将地形地貌意义上的“峁”、“梁”直接以其汉语拼音“mao”、“liang”取而代之;近日在编辑校学报英文摘要过程中,看到一博导将“二元、三元组合体”译成“two yuan, three yuan combination”;有一次我还看到一作者将“元数据”翻成“yuan data”....。这些学者很可能认为,他们是在充分利用“学术”机会为汉语拼音的“国际化”做贡献,但他们却忽视了一个现实:英语科技学术论文中夹杂的“mao”、“liang”、“yuan”等汉语拼音对大部分不懂汉语的西方学者来说会产生一种“丈二和尚摸不着”的奇怪感觉。

不可否认,随着中国经济的快速发展和其国际地位的与日俱升,会有越来越多的外国人学习汉语,精通汉语拼音。有目共睹的是,中国大陆人名、地名的汉语拼音已经“国际化”,但这并不意味著我们在任何场合可以随心所欲地以汉语拼音替代相应汉语的英文。

而在有些特殊场合确实非用汉语拼音不可的话,我们可在其汉语拼音后面括号加注相应的英文,如上面提到的mao (loess hills),liang (ridge)。

但“元数据”应译为metadata或meta data,绝对不可yuandata或yuan data;又如,“二元、三元组合体”绝对不要译成“two yuan, three yuan combination”,而需译为“two-element, three-element combination”。同样地,“三维元模型”应译为“three-dimensional meta-model”或“3D meta-model”,万万不可“three-dimensional yuan model”或“3D yuan-model”。

对中国大陆企业名称的翻译,特别是带有地名的企业名称的翻译,一般采用“汉语拼音+英文”的模式,也就说,其中的地名直接以汉语拼音替代,而其余需翻译成英文,例如,“王家村煤矿”译为“Wangjiacun Coal Mine”更妥,而不要按字面译成“Wang’s Family Coal Mine”。同样地,离笔者老家最近的“蔡家坡火车站”的英文应为“Caijiapo Railway Station”,而不要以字面直译成“Cai’s Family Slope Railway Station”。

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基于“态度”问题的“机器(网络)软件翻译”+“弄巧成拙”

(2017-09-05)

校期刊中心主任曾亲自告诉我,在英文编辑过程中,如发现论文的英文部分为“机器翻译”,一定要在第一时间直接告知他,他会通知编辑部将“这样的论文一律pass掉!因为靠“机器翻译”不是一个能力问题,而是“态度”问题了!其实笔者心比较软,从来没有向主任告“机器(网络)翻译”作者的状。

在编辑实际工作中,笔者经常会发现个别作者会百分之百地依靠网络上的所谓“翻译软件”来翻译论文的题目、单位(机构)名称、摘要、关键词、图表等,导致低级,甚至低俗错误的出现,真是令人啼笑皆非!

在自然版某期英文编辑过程中,笔者发现有两篇论文(第一作者均为“博导”)的英文部分为机器翻译。凭经验判断,我断定是第二作者(多数为研究生)干的。

其中一篇不仅摘要为彻头彻尾的“机器(网络)软件翻译”,而且将文后所列举的10多条中文参考文献的题名、刊名、单位(机构)名称等要素也以“机器”代译了。例如,将王振锋等学者发表在《煤炭学报》(Journal of China Coal Society)(2015.3)上的“新型瓦斯抽采钻孔注浆封孔方法及封堵机理”(Novel gas extraction borehole grouting sealing method and sealing mechanism)“翻成”了“New gas extraction from borehole grouting hole sealing method and plugging mechanism”,将《煤炭学报》直译成“Journal of coal”。

又如,将中国矿业大学(China University of Mining & Technology)成艳英的学位论文“本煤层钻孔瓦斯抽采失效机制及高效密封技术研究”(Research on Failure Mechanisms of Gas Drainage through Drilling in Coal Seam and Efficient Sealing Technology)题名“翻成”了“This gas extraction from coal seam drilling failure mechanism and efficient sealing technology research”,而且将“中国矿业大学”直译成“China Mining University”。

再如,将刘桂丽等作者发表在我校学报(自然版)上的“高位钻孔瓦斯抽采参数优化设计”(Optimal design of high position boring drainage parameters)直译成“High drilling gas extraction parameters optimization design”。

如果我们仔细比较一下,这3篇论文题名的原译英文(在中文题名后面的括号内)是比较地道的翻译,而“再被译文”都是望文生义的直译,特别是第二篇题名的“再被译文”前面的“this”简直让人丈二和尚摸不着头脑!

我们都知道,文后所列举的中文参考文献相应的英文题名、刊名、单位(机构)名称等要素千万不要“画蛇添足”的再“翻译”,只要把其作者现成的英文题名、刊名、单位(机构)名称等“复制”过来即可。

另外,单位(机构)的相应英文名称一般比较固定或约定俗成,千万不要随心所欲的自行直译,也就是说,“中国矿业大学”的英文名称应为“China University of Mining & Technology”,而不要以字面直译为“China Mining University”;“煤炭学报”的英文名称应为“Journal of China Coal Society”,而不是“Journal of coal”。

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关于论文的语态问题

(2017-07-10)

关于语态,较为传统的一种主张认为应以被动语态为主,因为被动语态可省略施动者,使强调的事物作为主语而突出了它们的“主体”地位,似乎更有利于阐明事实。

但也有一些作者认为,有时用主动语态在结构上似乎更简练,更能直接有力地表达,以突出动词所表达的内容。

据笔者长期观察,随着时间的推移,特别是在当今这个“以人为本”或“以人为中心”的时代,越来越多的作者似乎倾向于用主动语态,以体现人的主观能动性和创造性。

笔者认为,一切应顺其自然---既不要全盘否定被动语态,也不要千篇一律地使用主动语态,也就是说,尽可能地将主动语态与被动语态巧妙、有机地结合起来,以清晰、简洁的语言结构来阐述作者的思想或论文的内涵。

下面是笔者在近期阅读英文期刊文献过程中看到的部分例句,在此与读者分享:

We usethe Compound Topographic Index (CTI) to represent moisture content of the area.

★At this time the measured displacementshoweda sharp up slope movement followed by a steady but increasing down slope movement

We also usethe p-values (defined as the probability of finding a test statistic value as great as the observed test statistic value, assuming that the null hypothesis is true) in order to assess the significance of each regression coefficient….We rejectthe null hypothesis if the p-value is less than the significance value (α)we choose; here,we useα=0.001, corresponding to a 99% confidence level. Therefore if p<α,we rejectthe null hypothesis, and therebyassumethat the regression coefficient is not equal to zero, and equals the computed value.

★In order to apply this approach to a global data set,we usemultiple landslide inventories to calibrate the model. Using the model formula previously determined (using the Wenchuan earthquake data),we usethe four datasets discussed in Section 1.3.1 in our global database to determine the coefficients for the global model.

★The resulting databaseis used tobuild a predicative model of the probability of landslide occurrence.

★Substantial efforthas been invested tounderstand where seismically induced landslides may occur in the future, as they are a costly and frequently fatal threat in mountainous regions。

★Performance of the regression modelis assessedusing statistical goodness-of-fit metrics and a qualitative review to determine which combination of the proxiesprovidesboth the optimum predication of landslide-affected areas andminimizesthe false alarms in non-landslide zones.

★This paperreviewsthese factors, covering the characteristics, types and magnitudes, environmental impacts, and remediation of mine tailings dam failures.

★This conceptual modelallowedthe deformation of elements within the slope to be kept to a minimum.

★Those numerical studies mentioned above successfullyvalidatedthe usage of supplemental means for the full scale tests and alsocontributed todevelop and optimize new type of rockfall barrier system effectively.

★ The slope, however,was observedto remain largely saturated for most of the year with a phreatic surface near or at the surface.

We beginmodeling by assessing qualitative relationships within the data, moving forward by using logistic regression as a statistical method for establishing a functional form between the predictor variables and the outcomes (Figure 3).We iterateover combinations of predictor variables and outcomes within the model, focusing first on one training event (Wenchuan, China), with the ultimate goal of expanding the analysis to global landslide datasets.

★Median, minimum, and maximum slope values calculated from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data by Verdian et al. (2007)are usedin tests of the model.

★Ifwe define20% probability of a landslide to be the threshold, any probability equal to or greater than 20% will thenbe definedas a landslide prediction.

★The RS unit is suitable for testing both fully-softened shear strength and residual shear strength parametersthat canbe usedforslope stability assessments of various scenarios.

★Approximately 5% of all earthquake-related fatalitiesare causedby seismically induced landslides, in some cases causing a majority of non-shaking deaths.

★Unsaturated residual shear strength can alsobe usedas a macroscopic indicator of the nature of micro-structural changes experienced by the soils when subjected to drying.

★These datawereoriginallycalculatedfor the purpose of mechanical landslide modeling, andare used here asa statistical constraint on landslide susceptibility.

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No与non的区别

(2017-06-19)

我们都知道,no表示“没有,不许,一点儿也没有,决不是”等意思,如“No smoking”,“No Admittance Except On Business”,“No Admittance Except To Employees On Duty”。

Non表示“非,不,无”等含义(non可以与许多词组成复合词,可连写或加连字符;但若后面的词的词首为大写时,则必须加连字符,如:non-EU countries),如non-smoker(不吸烟者或非吸烟者),Non-smokerslive longer, healthy life(非吸烟者健康长寿);而“No smokerswould believe that secondhand smoke is harmful to non-smokers' health”意味著“没有吸烟者会相信二手烟对不吸烟者的健康有害”,或“吸烟者根本不会相信二手烟对非吸烟者的健康有害”!

例一:Non-government organizationsare supportive to this project. (非政府组织支持这个项目)

No government organizationsare supportive to this project. (没有政府组织支持这个项目,或政府组织决不会支持这个项目)

例二:Unregulated lenders andnon-U.S. bankswill probably step into the breach. 这里的“non-U.S. banks”是指非美国银行或美国以外的其他国家银行。

而“NoU.S. bankswill probably step into the breach”中的“noU.S. banks”是指没有美国银行,也就是说,“U.S banks will probably refuse to step into the breach”。

例三: “Performance of the regression model is assessed using statistical goodness-of-fit metrics and a qualitative review to determine which combination of the proxies provides both the optimum predication of landslide-affected areas and minimizes the false alarms innon-landslide zones”中的“non-landslide zones”是指非滑坡区,也就是还没有发生滑坡的区域;但“nolandslide zones”为没有滑坡的区域,也就是所涉及的区域不存在滑坡灾害或不会发生滑坡。

例四:“Approximately 5% of all earthquake-related fatalities are caused by seismically induced landslides, in some cases causing a majority ofnon-shaking deaths”中的“non-shaking deaths”是指非地震死亡,也就是死亡不是直接由地震导致的。

例五:No employeewho works so hard for so little money deserves this andno human beingin the world deserves this.... Although the video is receiving international attention, Toronto police told CTV News Toronto that they aren’t investigating the encounter as a hate-related incident and said thatno official complainthad been filed.

例六:American warplanes bombed an Iranian-backed militia that entered a supposedno-go zonenear a U.S garrison in southern Syria on Tuesday.

例七:The invasion of the city comes asno surprise, as the SDF has been encircling the city for months, and U.S. airstrikes have been bombing Islamic State positions for much of the past year.

例八:There isno organizationclaiming responsibility for the billboard. Shahid said the billboard also doesn't bear any company name, indicating that it is privately owned...."It's just a group of cowards who are not even ready to put their name behind it," Shahid said as she expressed the pain she felt to see this billboard in the midst of Ramadan.

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关于“倍数”的地道翻译(表达)

(2017-06-02)

在编辑工作中,笔者发现一些国内作者用英语表达我们汉语中的“倍数”时容易出错,例如,将“这个样品的体积是那个样品的5倍”译成“The volume of this sample is five times bigger than that one”。如果把该译文再翻译成汉语的话,那就是“这个样品的体积比那个样品大5倍”。

显然,上面的英译是不正确的,作者把“**是**的多少倍”与“**比**大多少倍”混淆了。

实际上,“这个样品的体积是那个样品的5倍”的正确英译应为以下几种形式:

The volume of this sample is five times that one.

This sample is five times the volume of that one.

The volume of this sample is five times as big as that one.

The volume of this sample is four times bigger than that one.

如果**是**的2或两倍,那么用“twice”就更地道了,如American workers were paid on average twice as much as workers in China.

又如,

例一:我们都知道,上海市的人口为2400多万,而我们西安市只有600多万,这就意味着“上海的人口是西安的4倍”或“上海人口比西安多3倍”。我们可用以下几种译文形式来表达同样的含义:

The population of Shanghai is four times that of Xi’an.

The population of Shanghai is four times as large as that of Xi’an.

Shanghai is four times the population of Xi’an.

The population of Shanghai is three times larger than that of Xi’an.

例二:“研究已证实,煤层气中的CH4也是一种温室气体,其对全球气候变化影响的相对能力是同量二氧化碳的21倍,对臭氧的破坏能力是同量CO2的7倍”可译成:

The research has shown that CH4in CBM is also a kind of greenhouse gas.The relative contribution of the CH4to global warming is 21 times that of equivalent carbon dioxide, and its destructive capacity for ozone layer is 7 times that of equivalent CO2.

当然,也可以“The research has shown that CH4in CBM is also a kind of greenhouse gas. The relative contribution of the CH4to global warming is 21 times as great as that of equivalent carbon dioxide, and its destructive capacity for ozone layer is 7 times as great as that of equivalent CO2

或以“The research has shown that CH4in CBM is also a kind of greenhouse gas. The relative contribution of the CH4to global warming is 20 times greater than that of equivalent carbon dioxide, and its destructive capacity for ozone layer is 6 times greater than that of equivalent CO2”来表达同样的意思。

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关于标点符号的温馨提示

(2017-05-04)

在编辑实际工作中,笔者有时发现有些作者的英文论文或中文论文英文摘要中会出现“、”、“。”等中文标点符号。就在昨日笔者路过一面包店时,发现该店的英文宣传语“********* accompanies your life every day. We only provide the baking products which are healthy、safety、exquisit and delicious Welcome to the baking culture sightseeing factory of *********.”中有两个顿号“、”。

我们都知道,顿号“、”、句号“。”等是汉语语言中常用标点符号,而在英语语言中没有“、”、“。”等汉语标点符号。其实,与汉语标点符号“、”和“。”相近的两个英语标点符号分别为“,”和“.”。

这就是说,在英文写作时一定要将输入法切换到英文状态,使用地道的、国际公认的英语语言标点符号,千万不要将汉语语言标点符号顿号“、”、句号“。”等“强加”到英语中。

尽管汉语标点符号逗号“,”、括号“()”等与英语标点符号“,”、“()”等在形态上极为相似,但在英语写作时,也不要混为一谈。

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论文题目(title)中“应用”的翻译

(2017-04-07)

一提到“应用”,人们自然会想到application或apply。例如,国内学者往往会把“大数据与认知计算在学习过程中的作用”翻译成“Application of big data and cognitive computing in the learning process”,但国外学者可能会以“The role of big data and cognitive computing in the learning process”表达同样的意思。

所以,除application之外,我们还可用其他诸多“手段”表达或翻译“应用”。

例如,“煤岩相特征化在煤自燃势探测中的应用”可译成“Petrographic characterization of coals as a tool to detect spontaneous combustion potential”;

又如,“三维计算机视觉技术在肉鸡重量预测中的应用”可翻成“Weight prediction of broiler chickens using 3D computer vision”;

“基于词典的稀疏表示在多焦图像融合中的应用”也可译为“Multi-focus image fusion using dictionary-based sparse representation”;

我们还可以“Feature extraction and soft computing methods for aerospace structure defect classification”来表达“特征提取与软计算方法在宇航结构瑕疵分类中的应用”。

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论文题目(Title)要“开门见山”

(2017-03-20)

我校材料学院郑斌博士与美国劳伦斯伯克利国家重点实验室和沙特阿卜杜拉国王科技大学合作完成的研究成果论文“Unravelling surface and interfacial structures of a metal-organic framework by transmission electron microscopy”(通过透射电子显微镜揭示金属-有机框架表面和界面结构)[2017年2月20日发表在《Nature》(自然)子刊《Nature Materials》(自然·材料)]引起了笔者的持续关注。在这篇论文的题目(title)中,既没有study或research,也没有analysis或application,而是一个“画龙点睛”、“开门见山”的题目。

然而,在平时的英文编辑工作以及浏览中外文文献过程中,笔者发现国内学者论文题目中往往会出现study,research等,象“…分析研究”,“…方法研究”,“…应用研究”,“…模型研究”,“…实验研究”,“发展研究”等等,似乎题目中少了study或research会“大大降低”论文本身的学术价值!

一美国学术刊物编辑曾告诉笔者,他不喜欢,有时甚至反感论文题目中的study或research ---这位编辑认为,学术论文题目中的study或research是“画蛇添足”!事实上,笔者也很少看到国外学者的论文题目中有study或research。

下面是几个典型的“开门见山”的论文题目(无study或research):

A new rapid method for shale oil and shale gas assessment(页岩油与页岩气快速评估方法)

An analytical model for shale gas permeability(页岩透气性分析模型)

Structured sparse representation for human action recognition(人体行为识别的构建稀疏表示)

Features and models for human activity recognition(人体行动识别的特征与模型)

Sparse coding inearly visual representation: From specific properties to general principles(初始视觉表示的稀疏编码:从特殊性到普遍原则)

An electro-chemical method for determining the susceptibility of Indian coals to spontaneous heating(确定印度煤自发热倾向性的电化方法)

CFD simulations of the effect of wind on the spontaneous heating of coal stockpiles(风对煤堆自发热影响的CFD模拟)

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参考文献中et al的用法

(2017-03-06)

在这个全球化时代,独著论文的数量在不断减少,合著论文数量在不断攀升,也就是说,随着时间的推移,跨领域、跨国界的合作势必越来越紧密,一篇论文的作者人数也随之在增加。

例如,国际权威学术杂志《Nature Materials》(自然·材料) 2017年2月20日在线发表的“Unravelling surface and interfacial structures of a metal-organic framework by transmission electron microscopy”研究成果论文是我校材料科学与工程学院郑斌博士与美国劳伦斯伯克利国家重点实验室和沙特阿卜杜拉国王科技大学12位学者合作完成的。

笔者还留意到,在2016年《西安科技大学学报》(自然版)所刊载的全部论文中,独著论文数量仅占9%,而91%的论文为合著,每篇论文的作者人数一般都在3人以上。笔者还注意到,Nature, Science等国际著名学术刊物上合著作者超过20人的论文也屡见不鲜。

毫无疑问,在引用参考文献时,由于空间所限,在一般情况下我们不可能,也没有必要列出所有作者。那么需要列出多少位作者后才使用et al呢?尽管不同的学术刊物有不同的规定,但目前普遍认可的惯例是,当作者超过3位以上时就使用et al,例如,《西安科技大学学报》(自然版)一直沿用这个惯例规则:

邓军,刘文永,翟小伟,等.水分对孟巴矿煤氧化自燃特性影响的实验研究[J]. 煤矿安全,2011,42(11): 15-19.

DENG Jun,LIU Wen-yong,ZHAI Xiao-wei,et al.Research on the effects of moisture on oxidation and spontaneous combustion properties of Mengba coal mine[J]. Safety in Coal Mines,2011,42( 11): 15-19.

尽管这篇论文的作者为邓军,刘文永,翟小伟,文虎4人,但在参考文献中,仅提及邓军,刘文永, 翟小伟3人。

但也有例外,如International Journal of Coal Geology不论作者名单有多长,都不鼓励使用et al,如:

Dai, S., Zhang, W., Ward, C.R., Seredin, V.V., Hower, J.C., Li, X., Song, W., Wang, X., Kang, H., Zheng, L., Wang, P., Zhou, D., 2013. Mineralogical and geochemical anomalies of late Permian coals from the Fusui Coalfield, Guangxi Province, southern China: influences of terrigenous materials and hydrothermal fluids. Int. J. Coal Geol. 105, 60–84.

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关于语言的熟练应用与地道表达

(2017-01-04)

许多国内学者都期望在在美英顶级学术刊物上发表论文,但一般遇到的最大难题很可能就是“语言”问题了。论文电邮到编辑部后,作者很可能会收到一条回复,要求作者“perfect”语言(并推荐有关商业论文润色公司),这就需要对论文进行耐心细致的修稿。所以,语言的熟练应用和地道表达是中国学术成果走向世界的一个关键因素。

那么,如何才能达到或接近语言的熟练应用和地道表达呢?在这方面,笔者愿与大家分享两点个人体会:

1、平时多看多写。常言道,“读书破万卷,下笔如有神”。尽可能多看英美学者撰写的相关论文,从中汲取有用的“词汇”、“句型”、“句子”等。

例如,These samples, upon arrival at the surface, were immediately wrapped in cling wrap(保鲜膜), triple bagged(三重包装) in thick plastic bags, sealed and refrigerated(between 4-10℃)to prevent any loss of water. 这里“三重包装”的译文为“triple bagged”,非常简练,也十分地道。

又如,In unconfined conditions, data related to the post-peak region of the intact rock parameters are not common as pre-peak and peak state parameters of stress–strain behavior. 这里的“post-peak…”及“pre-peak…”是非常地道的表达。

2、尽可能地突破汉语文化“思维模式”,以美英英语文化“思维”来表述所要传递的思想(信息)。

例1,Climate change poses risks to our national security, our economy, and our public health.

例2,Climate change poses a threat to our economy and to the world.

例1中的“poses risks to”及例2 中的“poses a threat to”都是英美文化“思维”的地道表达。

例3,Mobilization of residual strength can occur by operational induced strains and/or the presence of water. 毫无疑问,这里的“mobilization”肯定会强化人们对“residual strength”潜在危害的关注度。

例4,美国学者Alex Shaw, et al是这样介绍有关“Children’s Gestures”研究现状的:

Much of the existing previous work on children’s gestures focuses on providing insight into how designers can improve children’s touchscreen experiences when using gesture-based interfaces. A study by Hiniker et al.found that children respond better to gesture prompts that are designed specifically for younger users than to standard prompts. Research by Anthony et al.has shown the importance of providing visual feedback for children when making gestures, and a study by McKnight and Fitton demonstrated the benefits of compensating for errors that children tend to make when articulating gestures, such as unintended touches. Aziz et al.examined appropriate gesture sets for children ages 2 to 4 years old, and Nacher et al.offered a set of guidelines for designing multi-touch gestures for children based on a study of kids ages 2 to 3 years old. Hamza and Salivia showed that 4 and 5 year-olds’ ability to use gestures like zoom-in and drag-and-drop is affected by target size and position. We add to the existing literatureby characterizing gestures elicited from children ages 5 to 10 based on a number of different geometric, kinematic, and relative accuracy features. (Alex Shaw, et al)

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关于专业术语的“地道”翻译

(2016-12-12)

在多年的编辑实际工作中,笔者发现有的作者将“影响因素”翻译成“influence factor”,有的译成“influencing factor”,还有人翻成“affecting factor”,而很少有人将其翻成 “influential factor”。其实,“influential factor”是“影响因素”最地道的翻译,也是英美作者常用的。

有一次笔者还发现一作者将关键词“矿压显现规律”翻成了“the regularity be shown of mining pressure”,这纯粹是以个人“想象”翻译的,而较为地道的翻译应为“strata behavior law”。

笔者认为,在英译论文摘要或撰写英文论文时,一定要以“地道”的英文术语来展现自己的学术理念及研究成果,切记以个人“意志”而“想象”翻译。

如果平时多看、多“琢磨”英美学者撰写的学术论文,我们还会发现:

“时空特征”为spatiotemporal characteristics而不是time-space characteristics;

“时空模型”为spatiotemporal model而不是time-space model;

同样地,步态识别、稀疏表示、高斯滤波器、软计算、云计算、特征提取、特征融合、性别识别、分类算法、基于内容的图像检索分别为Gait recognition, sparse representation, Gaussian filter, Soft computing, cloud computing, Feature extraction, Feature fusion, Gender recognition, Classification algorithms, Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR)。

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形形色色的“temperature”用法

(2016-11-17)

除以“at a temperature of ”、“at temperatures of”、“at”等引出“temperature”之外,还有许多形形色色的“temperature”的实际用法。下面是笔者在浏览英文文献过程中看到的相关实例,供读者参考。

★Thus, sample Well-A-A002 was analyzed at a temperature of 42 ℃, Well A-A001 at 56 ℃ and Well A-A015 at 65 ℃.

★Thus, these natural CRB nontronites(绿脱石) are all likely to have formed at temperatures of <100°C.

★Decarreau and colleagues also observed smectite growth to be very slow except at elevated temperatures.

★From measurements of crystal growth at several temperatures, they derived an Arrhenius relationship for nontronite(绿脱石) formation, indicating that a ferric smectite with coherent domains100A in size should form in ~ 10 y at 25°C and in ~ 200 y at 2°C.

★The crystallinity of the synthetic nontronite increased with increasing temperature up to150°C, above which aegirine (NaFeSi2O6) formed rather nontronite.

★Application of these studies to nontronite formation from mafic precursors suggests that the formation of highly crystalline nontronite in nature may require long formation times at relatively low temperatures.

★The present study further investigated this synthesis by examining the crystallinity of a set of synthetic nontronite incubated at 23, 95, and 150°C.

★It cannot have occurred at temperatures above 100°C because liquid water in the open cracks would have escaped by boiling.

★Based on the oxygen isotopic composition of the Mururoa nontronites (Meunier et al., 2008, 2009), estimated formation temperatures were between 64 and 109°C,….

★On the atomic scale, the 95°C sample was clearly less well ordered than the natural nontronite samples or the 150°C sample.

★The experimental work of Decarreau et al. (2008) places a high-temperature limit of 200°C for the formation of the void-filling clays.

★… maximum burial temperatures of ~ 50°C.

★CRB nonotronite formation occurred at temperatures close to 100°C.

★In addition, the physical environment of CRB nontronites constrains their formation temperatures to be <100°C.

★The formation temperature of natural nontronite in the CRB can be constrained based on field observations.

★For a CRB nontronite precipitated in an open crack, the temperature of formation must have been below the boiling point of water.

★Jakobsson and Moore (1986) found that at 100°C palagonite formed a rim on basaltic glass at a rate of 2.8 um/y, and that this rate doubled with every 12°C increase in temperature. At temperatures>120°C, nontronite formed a rim on olivine crystals at a rate of 0.3 um/y; this rate doubled with every 8°C increase, but nontronite growth was not observed at lower temperatures. This growth rate is faster than the rates measured experimentally by Decarreau et al. (1987), but drops more rapidly with temperature.

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从“China Fueling”再谈“机器翻译”

(2016-10-17)

在Rio 2016 Summer Olympics期间,一中国西北汉子不远万里,漂洋过海赶到巴西里约为中国队加油。这位汉子曾多次出现在有中国运动员参赛的赛场,他不时举起一个“中国加油”的牌子为中国队呐喊助威,然而细心的电视观众会发现“中国加油”的下方附有“China Fueling”!稍微有点英语常识的人都知道,“中国加油”的英文应为“Go China”,而不是让人无法理解,甚至引起西方人误解的“China Fueling”!

10多年前,笔者曾惊奇地看到一教授将“可靠性”翻译成“dependent sex”;去年我发现一研究生把“节(日风)俗”“翻成”“section vulgar”。在最近一期学报的英文编辑过程中,笔者发现有两篇论文的英文摘要是机器翻译的(一篇是我校一青年教师的,另一篇是一211大学博导的)。更令人可怕的是,甚至在去年一国际学术会议收到的英文论文中,也不乏“机器翻译”的身影!

去过华山的人都知道,华山有“俯渭崖,擦耳崖,冲宵崖,舍身崖,避诏崖,明星崖,日月崖,仙掌崖”等9崖。假如我们用网络上比较流行的某免费机器翻译软件直接翻译的话,这9崖会被“翻成” “Fu Wei Ya, ear rub cliff, red cliff, Xiao Ya, Ya Ya star, from Chao, sun ya, Ya Xian Zhang”这样可笑的译文,简直与较为地道的“Looking into Wei River, Touching Ear, Thrusting into the Clouds; Sacrificing Oneself, Escaping the Imperial Edict, Bright Star, Sun and Moon, Immortal Palm”的译文相距十万八千里!

再如,如果把秦《峄山刻石》上的“追念乱世,分土建邦,以开争理。攻战日作,流血于野, 自泰古始。世无万数,陀及五帝,莫能禁止。乃今皇帝,一家天下,兵不复起。灾害灭除,黔首康定,利则长久”直接粘贴到网络上某免费翻译软件的文字框里,点击“翻译”按钮就会呈现“Remember the times, divided into civil state, to open for reasons. Attack on, bleeding in the wild, since the beginning of taigu. There is no million, and the top, nothing can be banned. This is the emperor, a world, will rise again. Disaster elimination, the common people of Kangding, and has long”的译文,这样的“译文”实在让人“丈二和尚摸不着头脑”。其实该段碑文较为地道的译文应为:

They[the Qin ministers] recalled and contemplate the times of chaos:

When [regional lords] apportioned the land, established their states,

And thus unfolded the pattern of struggles.

Attacks and campaigns were daily waged;

They shed their blood in the open countryside ---

This had begun in highest antiquity.

Through untold generations

One [rule] followed another down to the Five Thearchs,

And no one could prohibit or stop them.

Now Today, the August Thearch

Has unified all-under Heaven into one family ---

Warfare will not arise again!

Disaster and harm are exterminated and erased,

The black-headed people live in peace and stability,

Benefits and blessings are lasting enduring.

所以,无论汉译英,还是英译汉,绝对不可百分之百的直接依靠(赖)网上所谓的免费翻译软件。在非用不可的情况下,机器翻译出来的译文一定要反复推敲修改,以防低级错误的出现。笔者还想重复那句老话,再高端再智能的机器翻译软件都不会取代严肃认真的翻译工作者。

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“参考文献”(References)中的英文部分必须以原文的英文为准

(2016-09-21)

在撰写学术论文时,我们在文中都要提及他人的研究成果,因为从科研的规律来看,任何研究都是在前人研究的基础上进行的,所以,学术论文引用、参考他人的科研成果,都是很正常的,而且是必需的,但参考过的文献的作者、题名、刊名等要素须按国际标准格式附在文后“参考文献”(“References”)的后面。

今年3月份在编辑我校2016年第2期学报(自然版)英文部分时,笔者发现一作者文后所附的“智能分户供暖监控系统的无线温控器设计,视频监控系统在火灾报警中的应用,煤矿井下WiFi 人员定位GIS 系统设计与实现,矿井有限空间WIFI 信号测评系统研究”等4篇参考文献的英文题名分别是“Smart household heating thermostat wireless monitoring system design, Video surveillance system in the fire alarm, Wi-Fi coal mine personnel positioning GIS system design and implementation, Mine limited space research WIFI signal evaluation system”,这引起了我的警觉,因为凭直觉我断定原作者不可能将自己的题名译成这样的“生硬”英文。后来经查证,这4篇论文的中文题名原作者分别译为“Design of wireless temperature controller based on household heating control system, Application of video surveillance system in fire alarm, The design and implementation of WiFi localization GIS for mine, Research of mine limited space WIFI signal evaluation system”,均为较为地道的翻译。

所以,无论在撰写英文论文时需要参考中文文献,还是写中文论文需参考英文文献,文后“参考文献”(“References”)后面的英文题名(以及英文刊名)必须是原作者的,也即是说,文后参考文献后面所附的英文部分一定要以原文中的英文为准,绝对不要自己“翻译”或“修改”,更不可以“机器翻译”的“译文”来滥竽充数(应付)。在这个IT时代,在网上或所购买的数据库中可非常容易地找到原文全文(包括英文题名、英文摘要以及英文关键词等)。

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关于英美英语的混用问题

(2016-09-06)

我们都知道,英语有英式英语和美式英语之分,最明显的区别是有些单词的拼写差异。由于历史、经济等原因,在这个地球上英式英语和美式英语均有自己的影响区域。一般而言,英式英语在英联邦国家比较流行,而菲律宾、日本等国偏重美式英语。

在一般交流过程中,英式英语和美式英语之混用不会引起较大误解与歧义,但如果要给英美学术刊物投稿的话,我们就得留意了。一般原则是,在一篇论文或文章中不要出现英、美英语的混用问题,也就是说,在同一一篇论文或文章中,要么全是“英式英语”,要么全是“美式英语”。例如,“Getting some exercise every week, taking part in the dama-organised square dance every morning, and eating colorful meals with friends can be an enjoyable way to live a healthier life”中的“organised”是英式英语拼写,而“colorful”却是美式拼写,这样的混用易于引起编辑的不悦之感,也就是说,这句话要么全是英式英语“Getting some exercise every week, taking part in the dama-organisedsquare dance every morning, and eatingcolourfulmeals with friends can be an enjoyable way to live a healthier life”,要么全为美式英语 “Getting some exercise every week, taking part in the dama-organizedsquare dance every morning, and eatingcolorfulmeals with friends can be an enjoyable way to live a healthier life”。

尽管英美编辑能够“容忍”两种英语的差异,但笔者仍建议,在往美国学术刊物投稿时,尽可能用“美式英语”,而向英国以及英联邦国家学术刊物投稿时,英式英语就更佳了。

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优秀英文学术论文范例 --- 代世峰教授ESI高被引英文论文特征

(2016-07-04)

中国矿业大学代世峰教授发表在International Journal of Coal Geology, Ore Geology Reviews, Miner Deposita等学术刊物上的9篇英文论文均为ESI高被引论文,在学术界引起了较强反响,也引起了我们学科服务部的高度关注。[ESI高被引论文(Highly Cited Paper)是学术影响力和学科评估的重要指标,是指最近10年内发表的论文被引频次排在相应学科领域前1%以内的论文]

最近我们深入剖析、系统研究了代世峰教授的9篇ESI高被引英文论文,发现其具有以下特征:

1、 论文选题新颖,语言严谨,格式(自题目、摘要至附件材料等)规范,体现了代教授严谨的学术态度、深厚的学术修养。

2、 精心绘制之图表、海量之实验数据有力佐证、彰显了其论文学术性的国际领先地位。

3、 注重与国外相关学者的交流与合作,特别是在实验与实验分析数据的验证方面。

4、 英语语言应用熟练,表达地道,显示了代教授扎实的英语语言功底,这也是代教授学术论文(成果)走向世界、成为ESI高被引论文的一个重要因素。

下面是代世峰教授9篇ESI高被引英文论文题目及所发刊名,供有关学者在撰写相关英文论文时参考。

1. Coal deposits as potential alternative sources for lanthanides and yttrium [International Journal of Coal Geology 94 (2012) 67–93]

2. Determination of As and Se in coal and coal combustion products using closed vessel microwave digestion and collision/reaction cell technology (CCT) of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) [International Journal of Coal Geology 124 (2014) 1–4]

3. Elemental andmineralogical anomalies in the coal-hosted Ge ore deposit of Lincang, Yunnan, southwestern China: Key role of N2–CO2-mixed hydrothermal solutions [International Journal of Coal Geology 152 (2015) 19–46]

4. Enrichment of U–Se–Mo–Re–V in coals preserved within marine carbonate successions: geochemical and mineralogical data from the Late Permian Guiding Coalfield, Guizhou, China [Miner Deposita (2015) 50:159–186]

5. Geochemical and mineralogical evidence for a coal-hosted uranium deposit in the Yili Basin, Xinjiang, northwestern China [Ore Geology Reviews 70 (2015) 1–30]

6. Geochemistry of trace elements in Chinese coals: A review of abundances, genetic types, impacts on human health, and industrial utilization [International Journal of Coal Geology 94 (2012) 3–21]

7. Mineralogical and geochemical compositions of the Pennsylvanian coal in the Adaohai Mine, Daqingshan Coalfield, Inner Mongolia, China: Modes of occurrence and origin of diaspore, gorceixite, and ammonian illite [International Journal of Coal Geology 94 (2012) 250–270]

8. Origin of minerals and elements in the Late Permian coals, tonsteins, and host rocks of the Xinde Mine, Xuanwei, eastern Yunnan, China [International Journal of Coal Geology 121 (2014) 53–78]

9. Mineralogical and geochemical anomalies of late Permian coals from the Fusui Coalfield, Guangxi Province, southern China: Influences of terrigenous materials and hydrothermal fluids [International Journal of Coal Geology 105 (2013) 60–84]

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“产能过剩”的英文翻译

(2016-06-15)

“产能过剩”是指在计划期内,企业参与生产的全部固定资产,在既定的组织技术条件下,所能生产的产品数量,或者能够处理的原材料数量超出市场消费能力。产能过剩是世界许多国家都面临的共同问题,其根本原因是世界经济复苏乏力、国际贸易增长低迷和市场需求下降。去产能(de-overcapacity)、去库存(de-inventory)、去杠杆(de-leverage)已经成为中国供给侧结构性改革(supply-side structural reform)过程中的最热话题。

“产能过剩”通常译为“excess production capacity”,如“The Chinese finance minister said that China needs time to allow market forces to reduce excess production capacity”,或“overcapacity”,如“Speaking at the event's opening ceremony, Chinese President Xi Jinping promised action on reducing overcapacity”,又如“Overcapacity is a global problem brought on by weaker demand, and implementing policies to substantially reduce production in a range of sectors suffering from overcapacity, including steel and aluminum, is critical to the function and stability of international markets”。

也可将“产能过剩”译为“excess capacity”,如“China is no longer a centrally planed economy. We can't instruct businesses to do something. We will reduce excess capacity through market forces”。也有人将“产能过剩”译为“surplus production capacity”。

产能过剩产业或行业可译为“bloated industries”或“bloated sectors”,如“to move faster with plans to shrink bloated industries including steel excess capacity”,又如“The government announced plans this year to slash the size of its state-owned steel and coal industries. But plans for other bloated sectors, including aluminum, glass and solar panels, have yet to be announced.”

另外,“产业过剩”也可译为“industrial glut”,供给过剩“supply glut”。

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从巷道中的“romantic”再谈机器翻译

(2016-06-02)

今年1月中旬在编辑、润色一论文的英文部分时,笔者惊奇地发现一年轻作者论文的英文摘要中出现了一个“romantic”。不可否认,煤矿巷道中有发生romantic的可能性,因为我们可爱的值得尊敬的矿工也有七情六欲,也要谈情说爱,但该作者实际上想要表达的意思是巷道中“ventilation-related”的“风流”,而不是“love-related”的“风流”。很显然,这又是机器翻译之“杰作”。最近笔者发现一博士研究生的论文在强调电影文学改编过程中需认真重(chong)读原著时,将这里的“重读”翻成了“constant stress”!

细心游客发现,一景区将唐代“药王”孙思邈的英文翻成了“drug king”(“毒枭”),尽管媒体曝光后“译文”被景区紧急撤下,但还是引来网友一番戏谑和嘲讽;一火车站将“请在一米线外等候”翻译成“Please wait outside a noodle”(请在一根米线外等候),这又是机器翻译惹的祸。

多年前,我还看到一作者将工程上的“可靠性”翻成了“dependent sex”,而且堂而皇之地出现在英文题目和英文摘要之“大雅之堂”。

笔者并没有完全否定机器翻译软件“功劳”之意图,有时甚至有点佩服各种“形形色色”翻译软件发明者的聪明与智慧,但问题是,个别作者在百分之百的完全依赖这些翻译软件,甚至这样“翻译”出来的译文还懒得过目一遍,所以就直接导致低级,甚至低俗错误的出现。

笔者建议,在翻译时尽可能少用所谓的翻译软件,如果由于特殊情况非用不可,这样的“译文”一定要亲自过目反复细看,以防止低级错误的出现。

我们可以想象到,在这个知识产权时代,人家不会把花了大量人力和财力研发出来的高端翻译软件放在网上免费使用。当今充斥互联网的各种所谓的免费翻译软件一般都是低端的,最容易误导急于求成走捷径的作者了。

如果我们站在学术角度来研判,即就是高端的翻译软件也可能会产生错误百出的译文,所以再高端的翻译软件都不可能替代严肃认真的翻译工作者。

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“低碳环保”与“可持续(再生)能源”常用词汇荟萃及用法(二)

(2016-05-04)

作为一个环保主义者,笔者比较关注英美主要刊物与主流媒体关于“低碳环保”与“可持续(再生)能源”方面的文章(报道)。在浏览过程中,我也特别留意与其有关的词汇及其用法。

下面的《“低碳环保”与“可持续(再生)能源”常用词汇荟萃及用法》(第二部分)是笔者在近几个月的阅读过程中“积累”起来的,在此与大家一起分享。

★gas-fired power and heating plants

★gas-fired power plant e.g. Gas-fired power plants are replacing coal for electricity generation, but not quickly enough to soak up all of the extra supply coming out of U.S. shale.

★geothermal energy

★geothermal power

★global warming e.g. Against the backdrop of the global warming, the risks faced by our large engineering projects have increased; Global warming affects the safety and stability of these big projects, as well as their operations and economic effectiveness, technological standards and engineering methods; The U.N.'s Figueres said constructing a new international framework to curb global warming was going to be more complex than earlier thought.

★green energy

★greenhouse effect

★greenhouse gas emissions e.g. Experts say the national plans countries are now compiling for that deal are unlikely to add up to the reductions in greenhouse gas emissions needed to keep global warming to an internationally agreed limit of 2 degrees Celsius; China is making "strenuous efforts" and will inform U.N. officials by Tuesday of its proposed national contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, in preparation for the international conference on climate change to be held in Paris this November and December.

★greenhouse gases e.g. This country, the world's biggest emitter of climate-changing greenhouse gases, has sought to shift increasingly to cleaner burning hydrocarbons such as natural gas and to renewable energy.

★haze e.g. Pollution covered large parts of the country's east and centre as measures to curb the toxic haze were ordered to be implemented.

★heatwaves e.g. Unprecedented heatwaves, superstorms, wildfires, rising sea levels -- climate change is delivering serious challenges for many communities across America and around the world.

★hot dry rock geothermal energy

★hydroelectricity

★innovation economy

★low-carbon economy e.g. Putting a price on carbon would be the foundation for unlocking investment in low-carbon economies "with hope for jobs and competitiveness - not a picture of sacrifice and of loss and giving things up"; Investing in homegrown innovation, including the development of new, clean-energy technologies, is a crucial part of the fight against climate change – and is key to keeping America on the leading edge of the world’s transition to a low-carbon economy.

low-carbon energy

★low-carbon future e.g. Last week, in Paris, nearly 200 countries came together to set the course for a low-carbon future.

★low-carbon growth e.g. We’ll continue to meet our climate finance commitments to help developing countries transition to low-carbon growth.

★low-carbon life

★low-carbon transformation e.g. Puts in place a long-term framework that incentivizes countries to ratchet down their emissions over time in a transparent way with a view to achieving a low-carbon transformation by the end of the century.

★meltdown-proof reactor e.g. With a meltdown-proof reactor, the choice between nuclear power and fossil fuels seems like a no-brainer.

★natural gas

★nuclear power e.g. Nuclear power prevented about 64 gigatons of carbon from being released into the atmosphere between 1971 and 2009; "We're still using the same nuclear power technology we used in the 1950s. A typical nuclear reactor in the U.S. only uses about 5% of its fuel. Tons of energy is wasted on keeping water inside the reactor pressurized".

★ocean energy

★odd-even license plate system e.g. A red alert means around half the vehicles are removed from the roads with an odd-even license plate system enforced.

★PM2.5 e.g. The most harmful pollutant to human health is called PM 2.5, short for particle matter that's less than 2.5 microns in diameter. It's found in soot, smoke, and dust and lodges in the lungs causing long-term health problems like asthma and chronic lung disease; PM 2.5 starts to become a health problem when there is more than 35.5 micrograms of PM 2.5 per cubic meter (written like 35.5 µg/m3) of air, but WHO recommends that PM 2.5 shouldn't even exceed 10 µg/m3; Counts of PM2.5 -- harmful microscopic particles that penetrate deep into the lungs -- in one of the cities under red alert, were as high as 727 micrograms per cubic meter earlier Thursday. The reading is nearly 30 times the World Health Organization's recommended maximum exposure of 25 over a 24-hour period.

★pollutant emission

★pollution e.g. But healthy streams and wetlands can protect communities by trapping floodwaters, retaining moisture during droughts, recharging groundwater supplies, filtering pollution, and providing habitat for fish and wildlife.

★pollution index

★primary energy e.g. By 2035 coal accounts for less than 25% of primary energy, its lowest share since the industrial revolution; Renewables account for a quarter of global primary energy growth out to 2035, and over a third of the growth in global power generation.

★pro-environment e.g. “The Trans-Pacific Partnership(TTP)is the strongest, most pro-worker, pro-environment trade agreement in our history”.

★purified water

★renewable energy e.g. This country, the world's biggest emitter of climate-changing greenhouse gases, has sought to shift increasingly to cleaner burning hydrocarbons such as natural gas and to renewable energy; The country adds more renewable power over the Outlook than the EU and US combined. BP said the biggest danger to the downside for its outlook is slower-than-expected gross-domestic-product growth; and to the upside it suggested the possibility of a quicker-than-projected adoption of renewable energy.

★renewable power

renewable resources

★smog e.g. The city government has twice this month issued pollution "red alerts", the first time it has triggered its most severe smog warning.

★solar electric system e.g. Since the beginning of 2010, the average cost of a solar electric system has dropped by 50 percent.

★solar electricity generation

solar energy

★solar panels

★solar photovoltaics e.g. We’ve seen major advances in solar photovoltaics, wind power, advanced batteries, energy-efficient lighting, and fuel cells – and the cost of solar energy systems has plummeted by over 50 percent in the past five years alone.

★solar power e.g. Renewable energy like solar power might seem like the most sustainable option, but progress in renewable energy is moving at a snail's pace; The Country has been also investing heavily in solar power. In 2013, it installed a record 12 gigawatts of solar power. In 2014 the country added another 12 gigawatts of solar power, narrowly missing its goal of 14 gigawatts.

★solar projects e.g. "In March, the City promised to install as much as 17.8 gigawatts of solar projects in 2015. By comparison, the US added 7.3 gigawatts of solar capacity in 2014."

★solar thermal power

★sustainable development

★sustainable energy e.g. Sustainable energy is the form of energy obtained from non-exhaustible resources, such that the provision of this form of energy serves the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.

★sustainable growth e.g. Dealing with climate change was necessary for the Country to put its economy on a more sustainable growth path, something the country's leadership has been aiming for.

★tidal power

★water purification system

★wave power

★weather disasters e.g. The uptick in recent weather disasters such as floods, typhoons, droughts and heatwaves had a "big connection" to climate change.

★wind energy

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“低碳环保”与“可持续(再生)能源”常用词汇荟萃及用法(一)

(2016-04-06)

作为一个环保主义者,笔者比较关注英美主要刊物与主流媒体关于“低碳环保”与“可持续(再生)能源”方面的文章(报道)。在浏览过程中,我也特别留意与其有关的词汇及其用法。

下面的《“低碳环保”与“可持续(再生)能源”常用词汇荟萃及用法》(第一部分)是笔者在近几个月的阅读过程中“积累”起来的,在此与大家一起分享。

★air pollution e.g. Last month, air pollution soared in northeast Country, reaching 50 times over the safety levels recommended by the World Health Organization; Last week, the World Health Organization reported that an estimated 8.2 million deaths a year are linked globally to air pollution; Others think that buying bottles of air isn't a practical solution to the Country's air pollution.

★air purifier e.g. Bosch, the German electronics group, recently began selling an in-car air purifier and a small air quality monitor developed in China for the Chinese market; High-end air purifiers such as the Blueair Pro XL cost 23,220 yuan, not much less than the average urban annual income of 28,844 yuan, according to government data.

★air quality e.g. "Coal use in China has actually dropped for the past two years in a row. Three factors play into that: a huge push for more renewable capacity; the structural change in China’s economy; and the government’s concentration on improving the air quality".

★air quality index

★air quality monitor e.g. Origins Technology, a Beijing start-up, sold out of its 499 yuan Laser Egg handheld air quality monitors during this month’s smog wave. There is now a waitlist for the product.

★alternative energy

★bioenergy

★biomass

★biomass gasification

★biorefinery technologies

★bottled water e.g. Imports of bottled water are up sharply in volume terms, rising from 36 million litres two years ago to 46 million litres in the first 10 months of this year, according to Chinese customs.

★carbon capture and sequestration (CCS)

★carbon emissions e.g. the U.S. and countries around the globe have taken historic steps to curb carbon emission; Partners have avoided 5.8 million metric tons of carbon emissions — doing their part in the fight against climate change.

★carbon emitters

★carbon markets e.g. The EU and China pledged to step up their cooperation on climate research and carbon markets, which provide financial incentives to reduce carbon emissions; The EU launched its Emissions Trading System in 2005 and China has created regional carbon markets, with the ambition of creating a nationwide system.

★carbon neutrality

★carbon pollution e.g. In a historic move, the U.S. and China came together and announced new targets to reduce carbon pollution;We must continue investing in these kinds of innovations if we are to maintain our leadership in reducing carbon pollution while also growing the economy.

★carbon pricing e.g. Every country will need to manage an orderly transition to low-carbon growth and resilient development," she said, adding that carbon pricing would be one necessary element of that transition.

★carbon taxes

★carbon-heavy energy supply

★clean energy e.g. For the first time in history, we have a chance to put in place a global climate agreement that will spur countries to take ambitious action that will reduce carbon pollution, support clean energy, and ensure we deliver a planet that is worthy of future generations; Today’s announcements will help ensure that even more American-made clean energy technologies can make the leap from an idea, to the laboratory, to the global marketplace.

clean energy economy

★clean energy infrastructure

★clean power economy

★clean water e.g. Major economic sectors -- from manufacturing and energy production to agriculture, food service, tourism, and recreation -- depend on clean water to function and flourish. Without clean water, business grinds to a halt -- a reality too many local small business owners faced in Toledo last year when drinking water became contaminated for several days; Clean water is vital to our health; Our economy depends on clean water; Clean water helps farms thrive; Clear protections mean cleaner water.

★climate change e.g. Today, nations of the world have come together to announce a historic achievement: the most ambitious global agreement to combat climate change; No country is immune from the consequences of climate change, and no country can act alone; Climate change threatens some of the country's most important infrastructure projects, the top meteorologist warned in a state newspaper, adding the country's rate of warming was higher than the global average; Climate change is a lever which can push our country's economic transformation; Impacts from climate change like more intense droughts, storms, fires, and floods -- not to mention warmer temperatures and sea level rise -- threaten our water supplies; Around the world, climate change increases the risk of instability and conflict. Rising seas are already swallowing low-lying lands, from Bangladesh to Pacific islands, forcing people from their homes.... Elsewhere, more intense droughts will exacerbate shortages of water and food, increase competition for resources, and create the potential for mass migrations and new tensions.

★climate resilience

★climate resilient investment

climate targets e.g. China, Brazil, and more than 180 countries representing nearly 95% of global emissions have announced climate targets, or Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs); For the first time, all countries commit to putting forward successive and ambitious, nationally determined climate targets and reporting on their progress towards them using a rigorous, standardized process of review.

★CO2 emissions e.g. Coal accounts for about 60 percent of the country's CO2 emissions, which are causing massive health problems because of the smog they generate.

★coal-burning power plant

★coal-fired generators

★decarbonize e.g. A decarbonized world is now irreversible, irrefutable; Decarbonization refers to shifting from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources, and improving energy efficiency, in order to cut planet-warming emissions to a net zero; To decarbonize economies, we will need to begin with extraordinary ambition at the end of this year.

★disaster prevention and mitigation

★emission reduction e.g. In a joint announcement with the United States last year, the country said it would aim to peak its fast-rising emissions "around" 2030, and the United States said it would seek to cut emissions by 26 to 28 percent below 2005 levels by 2025; All the G7 countries have now put forward our post-2020 targets for reducing carbon emissions, and we’ll continue to urge other significant emitters to do so as well.

★emission trading e.g. The World Bank said in a report that emission trading schemes were worth an estimated $34 billion on April 1, up from $32 billion in 2014, while the value of carbon taxes around the world amounted to about $14 billion.

★emissions goals

★energy consumption e.g. Leaders from schools, universities, hospitals, industry, cities, towns, commercial real estate, hotels, food service — across tens of thousands of buildings — are reducing energy consumption by more than 2 percent per year — right on target for 20 percent.

★energy demand e.g. EU energy demand in 2035 is back to where it was 50 years earlier, despite the economy being almost 150% bigger.

★energy efficiency e.g. The more work we did on this issue, the clearer it became that making buildings, plants and homes more energy efficient was a triple win — a win for jobs and economic growth; a win for businesses’ operating costs and bottom lines; and a win for our effort to reduce carbon emissions and fight climate change.

★energy savings e.g. We are on track to meet our energy savings goal; Using water more efficiently results in lower operating costs, a more reliable water supply, and improved water quality. It also takes energy to treat and transport water, so cutting water use saves energy; In the next year, each recruit another organization to set the same aggressive goal of 20 percent energy savings — or more.

energy security

★energy supply

★energy waste

★environment

★environment protection

★environmental impact e.g. The remaining three environmental impact studies were due to be completed by the end of fiscal year 2016, which ends Sept. 30.

★environmental quality

★environmentally friendly

★environmentally sustainable e.g. "To me, if I can make my socks in an environmentally sustainable way, reducing my use of energy and chemicals, that makes me a high-end manufacturer."

★fossil fuel(s)

fossil fuel-driven economy

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单位(机构)英文名称的约定俗成

(2016-03-21)

在实际英文编辑工作中,笔者偶尔会遇到有个别作者将我校校名“西安科技大学”直译成“Xi’an Scientific and Technological University”。其实,我校校名的正确正式英文名称为“Xi’an University of Science and Technology”。

与其中文名称一样,一个单位(机构)的英文名称也是通过国家相关部门的审定,具有唯一性。所以,在涉及一个单位(机构)名称的英文翻译时,绝对不要以个人的想象按字面直译,最好进到该单位(机构)的官方网站,以其公布的惯用正式英文名称为准。

例如,“西安工业大学”惯用的正式英文名称为“Xi'an Technological University”,千万不要以其字面直译为“Xi’an Industrial University”;

又如,“西安工程大学”的正式英文名称为“Xi'an Polytechnic University”,如果按其字面直译成“Xi’an Engineering University”就大错特错了;

“中国矿业大学”的官方正式英文名称为“China University of Mining and Technology”,而不是“China Mining University”;

“西安电子科技大学”惯用的正式英文名称为“Xidian University”;

“Peking University”是国际惯用的“北京大学”的英文名称;

“Tsinghua University”为“清华大学”的正式英文名称。

另外,美国有些大学设有若干分校,这里的“分校”不是按其字面翻成“Branch School”,而是以其所在城镇的地名直接代表“分校”,例如,“加利福尼亚大学伯克利分校”英文名称为“University of California, Berkeley” (UC Berkeley);“加利福尼亚大学洛杉矶分校”为 “University of California, Los Angeles” (UCLA)”。

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“供给侧”的英文翻译

(2016-03-03)

“供给侧”和“供给侧结构性改革”是目前比较流行的经济学术语,在中央领导讲话以及各种媒体出现的频次也比较高。省政协常委,民革陕西省委员会科学教育委员会副主任,我校化工学院教授、博导李侃社先生在今年1月26日陕西省十一届政协四次会议举行的第二次全体会议上的发言主题也是“供给侧结构性改革”。如果我们知晓“供给侧结构性改革”是指“从提高供给质量出发,用改革的办法推进结构调整,矫正要素配置扭曲,扩大有效供给,提高供给结构对需求变化的适应性和灵活性,提高全要素生产率,更好满足广大人民群众的需要,促进经济社会持续健康发展”的话,我们会将“供给侧”正确地翻成“supply-side”,“供给侧结构性改革”“supply-side structural reform”。

根据笔者“经验”,在翻译有些我们不太“熟悉”的“新术语”时,可借鉴网络上的相关英文文章或新闻报道来校对我们自己的翻译,以确保翻译的准确性,例如,如果我们进入Xinhua News Agency,China Daily等英文网站,我们可找到若干“supply-side”,“supply-side theory”,“supply-side economics”,“supply-side reform”以及“supply-side structural reform”有关的英语新闻或文章。

下面是几则有关“供给侧”的英语释义以及相关例句:

★Supply-side theory is an economic theory holding that bolstering an economy's ability to supply more goods is the most effective way to stimulate economic growth.

★Supply-side economics is a macroeconomic theory which argues that economic growth can be most effectively created by investing in capital, and by lowering barriers on the production of goods and services. According to supply-side economics, consumers will then benefit from a greater supply of goods and services at lower prices; furthermore, the investment and expansion of businesses will increase the demand for employees and therefore create jobs. Typical policy recommendations of supply-side economists are lower marginal tax rates and less government regulation.

★Cutting housing inventories, tackling debt overhang, eliminating superfluous industrial capacity, cutting business costs, streamlining bureaucracy, urbanization and abandoning the one-child policy are all examples of supply-side reforms.

★The country's top leaders are likely to introduce all-round "supply-side reform" at the annual Central Economic Work Conference, which began on Friday (March 4th2016) in Beijing.

★We will expand aggregate demand as appropriate, and focus on structural reforms. We will press ahead with supply-side structural reform.

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“-Driven”之巧用

(2016-01-05)

在这个“大众创业,万众创新”(mass entrepreneurship and innovation)时代,“创新驱动发展”(innovation-driven development, that is, development driven by innovation)是一条在媒体最流行、出现频次最高的词组。笔者近几个月浏览了若干相关英文文章,关注到了“-driven”之广泛应用。下面是笔者从英文媒体看到的“-driven”有关的词组及例句,在此与读者分享。

★innovation-driven development strategy e.g. China will continue to implement the strategy of innovation-driven development and promote mass entrepreneurship and innovation(大众创业,万众创新), said a statement issued Monday after the Central Economic Work Conference.

★clean energy-driven economic development

★culture-driven economy e.g. Chinese and Italian companies celebrate 45 years of culture-driven economic ties.

★digital economy-driven growth e.g. The digital economy has become the most powerful engine to drive China's economic development.

★domestic demand and consumption-driven development

★innovation- and consumption- driven development pattern

★innovation-driven development

★internet+-driven e-commerce economy

★investment- and export-driven development model

★investment- and export-driven model e.g As the country is undergoing an upgrade of its development pattern from an investment- and export-driven model to one driven by innovation and consumption, China has announced a range of measures for emerging businesses, including financial support, supporting infrastructure and administrative assistance.

★IT-driven economic development

★new growth engines e.g. Reform and innovation will inspire creativity and new growth engines while facilitating upgrading in traditional industries and growth in emerging ones, said the statement.

★reform and innovation-driven economic development

★renewable energy-driven development

★renewable energy-driven economic development

★tourism-driven economy

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漫谈汉译英翻译质量标准

(2015-12-21)

说起汉译英翻译质量,我们都知道,没有国家标准,更没有国际标准,但有一个大家“默认”的“起码”标准,这就是我们的译文必须让其他人,特别是英美国家的人能看懂、读懂,这就要求译文语言要尽可能的“地道”,绝对不可随心所欲地“想象”翻译。笔者建议平时多看一些英美作者(学者)的相关文章(论文),从中汲取有用的词汇及用法。

例如,笔者发现有些作者将“可持续发展”翻成“continuing development”或 “continued development”, 其实,如果留意英美刊物的话,我们发现“sustainable development”是“可持续发展”的最地道翻译。“能源安全”不可望文生义地翻成“energy safety”,而要译为“energy security”。

又如,“减排”要翻成“emission reduction”;“碳排放”需翻成“carbon emissions”(e.g. the United States said it would seek to cut emissions by 26 to 28 percent below 2005 levels by 2025; All the G7 countries have now put forward our post-2020 targets for reducing carbon emissions, and we’ll continue to urge other significant emitters to do so as well.);“防灾减灾”的地道翻译应为“disaster prevention and mitigation”。

又如,将“无碳世界”和“无碳经济”分别翻成“no-carbon world”和“no-carbon economy”也没有什么大错,但其最地道的翻译应分别是“decarbonized world”和“decarbonized economy”(e.g. A decarbonized world is now irreversible, irrefutable; Decarbonization refers to shifting from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources, and improving energy efficiency, in order to cut planet-warming emissions to a net zero; To decarbonize economies, we will need to begin with extraordinary ambition at the end of this year)。

《习近平谈治国理政》是一本颇具影响的书,已翻译成多种语言在全球发行。我留意到该书的英文版本将“治国理政”译为“Governance of China”,非常简练,也十分得体。

现在中国涌现如火如荼的大众创业热潮。那么,如何将“大众创业”翻译成地道的英文?根据“大众创业”是指“中国大众借助中国改革的政策优势来创立起自己的家业,积累自己的有形资产和财富”之含义,“大众创业”可译为“mass entrepreneurship”。

我还留意到,香港警局的座右铭“服务为本 精益求精”之英文版本是 “We Serve with Pride and Care”。

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关于中文人名的英语“翻译”

(2015-11-23)

如今用汉语拼音字母拼写中国人名地名已得到世界公认,但港澳台以及海外华侨中文人名的英语翻译一般不采用汉语拼音,而要沿用他们惯用的罗马字母拼写法或英文名,如李嘉诚(Li Ka-shing),李兆基(Lee Shau Kee),陈龙(Jackie Chen),梁振英(Leung Chun Ying),董建华(Tung Chee-hwa),崔世安(CHUI Sai On),马英九(Ma Ying-jeou),蔡英文(Tsai Ing-wen),李登辉(Lee Teng-hui),李政道(Tsung-Dao Lee),杨振宁(Chen Ning Yang),丁肇中(Chao Chung Ting),贝聿铭(Ieoh Ming Pei),朱棣文(Steven Chu),骆家辉(Gary Locke),李光耀(Lee Kuan Yew),吴作栋(Goh Chok Tong),李显龙(Lee Hsien Loong)等等。

为了便于对外交流,中国历史人物中文人名的英文翻译也要沿用传统的罗马字母拼写法或“英文名”,如孔子(Confucius),孟子(Mencius),孙中山(Sun Yat-sen),宋庆龄(Soong Ching Ling),蒋介石(Chiang Kai-shek),宋美龄(Soong May-ling)等等。

美国总统奥巴马也许不知道“Ma Yun”为何许人也,但他却知道Jack Ma(马云)是一个成功的中国企业家。所以,在对外英语翻译中,对有些在国际上有较大影响的现代中国大陆中文人名的翻译最好也要沿用他们在国际上惯用的“英文名”。

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漫谈英语翻译中的汉语(拼音)“元素”

(2015-11-09)

每天上下班必经几条街道,总会目睹一些形形色色的“英文标识”,发现一家设在酒店二层门店的门牌上标有“二F”。当然,我们中国人都会知道这“二F”是指该店在这家酒店的第二层,但对不懂汉语的外国人而言,这“二F”中的“二”很可能成为他们难以理解的“奇怪符号”。更令人啼笑皆非的是,个别作者还在英文论文中用上了汉语数目字“一、二、三、四…”,甚至出现在各级标题中。

在最近一次国际会议英文论文审稿过程中,笔者发现一作者将黄土高原的“峁梁”直接音译成了“maoliang”;还有的作者将汉语中的标点符号顿号“、”句号“。”也照搬到英文论文中。

以下是笔者几点小建议(提示),供参考。

1. 关于各级标题序号

在现代英语中,英文论文各级标题的序号必须是阿拉伯数字,这已成为全球公认的“国际标准”,千万不要将汉语数目字“一、二、三、四…”等用在英文论文各级标题序号上。

2. 关于标点符号使用

在英语中没有汉语中的标点符号顿号“、”句号“。”,而英语中的相应标点符号分别是“,”和“.”。所以,在英语翻译时,不要将汉语中的标点符号顿号“、”句号“。”直接搬运到英语译文中。

3. 关于汉语拼音应用

1978年国务院转发的《关于改用汉语拼音方案拼写中国人名地名作为罗马字母拼写法的实施说明》规定,“用汉语拼音字母拼写的中国人名地名,适用于罗马字母书写的各种语文,如英语、法语等”。事实上,如今用汉语拼音字母拼写中国人名地名已得到世界公认。这里需要注意的是,地名的专名部分原则上应音译,也即是说,“西安市”(Xi’an City)中的“西安”可音译为Xi’an,而“市”一般需要意译为City;“太白山”(Taibai Mountain)中的“太白”可音译为Taibai,而“山”应意译为Mountain,所以,一般不要将汉语地名中的省、市、县、镇以及山名中的“山”、河名中的“河”、江名中的“江”分别音译为sheng, shi, xian, zhen, shan, he, jiang。而前面提到的“峁梁”要意译为“loess hill ridge”,绝对不可音译为“maoliang”。

由于历史、约定俗成等原因,在汉译英时有些汉语地名并不是严格用汉语拼音拼写,如西藏(Tibet),内蒙古(Inner Mongolia),香港(Hong Kong),澳门(Macau),乌鲁木齐(Urumqi),呼和浩特(Hohohot),拉萨(Lhasa),哈尔滨(Harbin)等。

另外,在翻译时省名“山西”是Shanxi,而“陕西”是Shaanxi。

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“中小”及“一、二、三线”的英文翻译

(2015-10-13)

一提起“中小”,我们常常会想到“中小企业”等;一看到“一、二、三线”,我们首先会联想到当今所谓的“一线城市”、“二线城市”、“三线城市”等等。在实际编辑工作中,笔者偶尔看到有个别作者将“中小企业”翻成“medium small enterprise”, 把“一线城市”、“二线城市”、“三线城市”分别翻成“one line city”、“two line city”、“three line city”。这些都是随心所欲的“对等直译”。

正确的译法:“中小企业”应为small and medium-sized enterprise; “一线城市”、“二线城市”、“三线城市”分别应为Tier 1 city, Tier 2 city, Tier 3 city或者Tier 1 cities, Tier 2 cities, Tier 3 cities. 例如,“北上广是一线城市”应翻成Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou are Tier 1 cities;“西安是二线城市”应为Xi’an is a Tier 2 city.

下面是几个相关例子,供读者参考。

Small and medium-sized developers, which account for more than four-fifths of industry revenue and assets, are particularly vulnerable given their smaller margins and higher debt levels than larger competitors.

★The country’s other threeTier 1 citiesalso did well in May on a month-on-month basis. According to NBS, Beijing prices were up 1.1%, Guangzhou 1.4%, and Shanghai 2.2%.

★Inventory levels of unsold housing stock have climbed to as high as 77 months of sales in “Tier 3” cities such as ..., and even fifteen months’ worth in Tier 1 cities such as ... and ..., sparking reports of the country's “ghost cities.”

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“数目”在句子开头应“全写”

(2015-09-22)

在写作英文论文时,如果一个句子是以“数目”开头,这个“数目”应以“全写”形式出现(If we start a sentence with a number we should write out the number),也就是说,阿拉伯数字一般不应直接放在一句话的开头,例如,“40 sets of 3D points distribution face model data selected randomly from a monolayer face sample library are taken as the face samples of feature points which will be located”是不正确的。这句话开头的数目40应“全写” 为Forty,也就是说“Forty sets of 3D points distribution face model data selected randomly from a monolayer face sample library are taken as the face samples of feature points which will be located”是正确的。

下面是若干有关例句,供读者参考。

★Fifty countries sign up to China-led Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, in diplomatic victory for Beijing.

★Six states have enacted paid sick days or paid family leave. Seventeen states, and more than two dozen cities and counties, have raised their minimum wage.... All told, 34 states have increased funding for preschool.

★Forty-six percent of respondents disapproved of their government's response to the country’s actions at the shoal, higher than 32 percent last year and 27 percent in 2013.

★Forty-nine percent in the most recent survey, which was carried out over four days in March, said they approved of government response.

★Representatives from 57 countries have attended a signing ceremony in Beijing for the founding of the new Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank.

“增加(长)”及“减少(小)”的翻译(二)

(2015-09-02)

当谈及“增加(长)”及“减少(小)”时,在学术论文中常用increase, decrease, reduce, rise, fall, decline, grow等,而在新闻媒体,特别是财经报道中,surge, soar, up, go up, jump, climb, gain, bid up, drop, plummet, slump, dive, down, off, dip, cut, shrink, contract, plunge, shed等应用频次较高。

下面是若干相关例子,供参考。

★The changes observed in the mechanical properties of polymers from plasticizers are similar to the reductions in the mechanical properties of coal resulting from CO2 adsorption. This suggests that the reductions in stiffness and strength of CO2 saturated coal may be related to the interaction of coal and CO2 as a plasticizer.

★Some automated core scanners have the capacity to maintain to constant distance between the detector and the sample surface during measurement, which can reduce this effect.

★The experimental data showed that the elastic modulus of coal can decrease up to 19% when CO2 is injected into coal specimens and the strength of coal can be reduced by 20%.

Elements such as Na, Ca, K and Fe, for example, may lower the fusion temperatures of coal ash, leading to build-up of slags and other deposits in combustion applications.

China's trade surplus soared by almost half last year to a record $382 billion, the government announced Tuesday.

★Total trade in 2014 rose just 3.4 percent from the year before, far below authorities' aim of about 7.5 percent and the third consecutive year the official target has been missed.

★GDP expanded an annual 7.3 percent in the third quarter, the slowest since the height of the global financial crisis in early 2009.

★For December alone, the trade surplus soared 93.5 percent year-on-year to $49.6 billion, as exports increased 9.7 percent to $227.5 billion and imports fell 2.4 percent to $177.9 billion, Customs said.

★Shares in Li Ka-shing's firms soar on re-structuring plan.

★Shares of property giant Cheung Kong Holdings, and investment holding firm Hutchison Whampoa, surged on Monday in Hong Kong after a restructuring announcement.

★Meanwhile Hutchison Whampoa's shares had surged more than 12%.

★European stock markets inched higher on Monday, putting aside concerns over Greece that unsettled the euro after Chinese stocks rallied almost 5 percent.

★Cheung Kong's shares were up in Hong Kong as much as 14% in afternoon trading on Monday.

★The country’s stocks plummet 8% as regulators prick stock bubble.

★The Shanghai Composite Index was down 8.3 percent at 3,096.64, giving investors a wild ride after a year in which China's stock market marched higher despite slowing economic growth. For the past three months, the index is still up 32 percent. Its dive rubbed off on Hong Kong where the Hang Seng was off 2.1 percent at 23,605.00. Japan's Nikkei 225 rose 0.9 percent to 17,014.29 and South Korea's Kospi gained 0.8 percent to 1,902.62. Australia's S&P/ASX 200 rose 0.2 percent to 5,309.10. Shares were also higher in Taiwan, New Zealand and Southeast Asia.

★Hong Kong-based mid-sized Reorient Group (376.Hong Kong) jumped 177% at the open to trade at 25 Hong Kong dollars this morning.

★All of Alibaba-controlled subsidiaries listed in Hong Kong have done very well this year, because of investors’ confidence in the Ali-name. Intime Retail (1833.Hong Kong) has jumped 138%, Alibaba Health (241.Hong Kong) gained 108%, Alibaba Pictures (1060.Hong Kong) rose 137%.

★Rescuers pulled at least three people from the wreckage of a capsized Chinese cruise ship Tuesday as fears mounted for the more than 400 people still missing after the boat sank in a storm.

★The outbreak of the MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) virus has fuelled growing public alarm, and online retailers reported a 700 percent surge in sales of face masks over the weekend.

★He had quickly climbed the wealth ranks in China as the company stock soared -- shares surged 625% over the past year prior to the crash.

★It also provoked local resentment, as wealthy immigrants bid up property prices in places like Vancouver.

★Health care prices have risen at the slowest rate in nearly 50 years.

★As medical costs go up, that need grows more pressing. Now, for the first time, we have not just the need but the will to get this job done.”

★Wages for American workers continue to rise. And since I took office, the United States has cut our deficit by two-thirds.

Like other asset bubbles, housing bubbles are notoriously difficult to detect until they pop, but there is growing evidence of the country's bubble bursting. After rising 26 percent a year for ten years, the value of residential property transactions in the forty cities fell by 14 percent from April 2013 to August 2014. The impact has been even bigger in the major cities, with a 33 percent drop in ... and 21 percent in ....

★That is little changed from a preliminary reading of 49.1, and up a touch from April's 48.9.

★Factory output also shrank for the first time this year as the sub-index slipped under 50.

★A solid fall in new export work contributed to fewer new orders, which in turn led to the first contraction of output in 2015 so far.

★The PMI showed factory employment shrank in May for the 18th straight month, even though the pace of contraction eased from the rates seen in March and April.

★That has fueled speculation that the country's central bank, which has cut interest rates three times in six months, is likely to lower rates again this year.

★Macau's gambling revenue falls 37 percent in May.

★Gambling revenue in the Chinese territory of Macau plummeted 37 percent in May, marking one year of consecutive declines as wealthy gamblers continued to steer clear of the country's only legal casino hub.

★Gambling revenue fell to 20.3 billion patacas ($2.5 billion) in May from 32.4 billion patacas a year earlier, showed data released by the Macau government on Monday. Analysts were expecting a decline of around 38 percent.

★Oil prices dipped about 0.7 percent to $65.12.

★On Seoul stock markets, share prices of some pharmaceutical firms jumped by the daily limit of 15 percent on Tuesday, while those of airline and travel operators took a dive.

★Stock in the company plummeted by 47% in a single hour of trading in late May.

★His stake dropped by as much as $15 billion in value, according to data compiled by CNNMoney.

★Worryingly for the local governments, land purchased by property developers slumped by over 30 percent in the first two months of 2015.

★South Korea's outbreak of the potentially deadly MERS virus on Thursday forced the central bank to cut its key interest rate to ward off greater economic damage, as retailers report a slump in business.

★Businesses including shopping malls, restaurants and cinemas have reported a sharp drop in sales as people shun public venues with large crowds.

Bank of Korea governor Lee Ju-Yeol said slowing exports and threats to business from MERS were central to the decision to cut its benchmark rate by a quarter percentage point, to a record low of 1.5 percent, which was the first cut since March, when the central bank made a surprise cut of 25 basis points.

★The SCMP/Creda Index, a collaboration of the South China Morning Post and China Real Estate Data Academy, shows new homes prices in the city climbed 6.7% last month.

A study he produced with Chinese scientists in 2012 showed a steep decline in coral cover in the area due to such pressures, which are affecting reefs globally.

★The decline last month, however, was better than the 6.1% drop in April, so markets could be near the bottom.

★Interventions by authorities including a surprise interest rate cut at the weekend -- the fourth since November -- and relaxing rules on margin trading have failed to arrest the declines.

★The securities regulator has pledged to crack down on market manipulation after rumors that foreign short-sellers were behind recent share price plunges.

★The CSI300 index of the largest listed companies in Shanghai and Shenzhen dropped 5.4 percent to close at 3,885.92, while the Shanghai Composite Index shed 5.8 percent to 3,686.92 points.

Share prices rocketed on Monday in response to Beijing's measures.

★On Wall Street the Dow added 0.55 percent, the S&P 500 jumped 0.62 percent and the Nasdaq rose 0.11 percent.

If the stock market crashes, though, and it shaves 0.5% to 1% off gross domestic product as Societe Generale estimates it could, then the government has no choice but to stall the machine.

★Funding for this type of work (basic research) has fallen significantly over the past 50 years, according to a recent report out of MIT. Here's a chart showing the drop in US funding for basic research from 1968 to 2015:....

★Today, the number of seniors in poverty has fallen dramatically.... And, by the way, since the Affordable Care Act was signed into law, the uninsured rate for all Americans has fallen by about one-third.

增加(长)”及“减少(小)”的翻译(一)

(2015-07-01)

在涉及“增加(长)”及“减少(小)”的翻译时,我们自然会想到increase和decrease这两个常用单词。我们知道,increase和decrease既是及物动词,又是不及物动词,还可作为名词使用,例如,在“This relationship provides a basis for relating data from scanned core profiles to information from down-hole density (gamma-gamma) logs, thus increasing the understanding of coal seams for site-specific resource studies”和“According to the gas law, higher temperatures should decrease gas holding capacity, although this not always observed in some low rank coals”中,increase和decrease是及物动词;在“The AIC value decreases with better model fit, but increases with complexity of the model”中,increase和decrease是不及物动词;而在“This explanation best accounts for both the increase in coal rank as well as the positive gravity anomaly”和“Above 10% ash yield content, there is an exponential decrease in measured gas; when ash yield is less than 10%, variations in gas content are not well explained”中,increase和decrease都是名词。

另外,在作为名词使用,且表示在什么方面(或何物)增加或减少时,紧跟increase和decrease的介词往往是in,如 “Overall, there is greater gas holding capacity with increase in rank and depth”,“As gas in the sample cell is adsorbed, there is a corresponding decrease in pressure that is proportional to the volume adsorbed”,而“increase for”, “increase of”,“decrease for”以及 “decrease of”是不正确的,望写作时留意。

下面是笔者在2015年上半年浏览英美期刊(媒体)过程中看到的有关increase和decrease用法的若干典型例子,供参考。

As the intervals sampled become smaller, the overall cost of analysis per meter of coal also inherentlyincreases.

★Moisture content decreasessignificantly with depth in some boreholes.

★Studies have shown that adsorption of gasdecreasesthe elastic modulus and strength of coal.

★It has been suggested that presence of CO2decreasesthe glass transition temperature of coal.

★The strength of the polymerdecreasedas the concentration of plasticizer rises.

★Moisture values are around 20% (adb) at about 250m anddecreaseto about 10% (adb) towards the bottom of the well (~600 m).

Wypych (2004) reported that plasticizer alsodecreasethe hardness (resistance to local deformation) and toughness (ability to deform without fracturing) of polymers.

★The crystallinity of the synthetic nontroniteincreasedwithincreasingtemperature up to 150°C, above which aegirine (NaFeSi2O6) formed rather nontronite.

Jakobsson and Moore (1986) found that at 100°C palagonite formed a rim on basaltic glass at a rate of 2.8 um/y, and that this rate doubled with every 12°Cincreasein temperature. At temperatures>120°C, nontronite formed a rim on olivine crystals at a rate of 0.3 um/y; this rate doubled with every 8°Cincrease, but nontronite growth was not observed at lower temperatures.

★For the range of net normal stresses and suction states investigated, theincreasein residual shear strength withincreasingsuction was found to be virtually linear for SM soil, but significantly nonlinear for SC-SM soil.

★The internal reaction force is slightlyincreasedup to 60kN, but more or less contact.

★After reaching at the maximum deformation of1 m, the internal force of the device is turned to suddenlyincreaseas amount of the applied force.

★On the other hand, the maximum reaction forces acting on upstream and foundation wasincreasedto 10% to 20% whereas the reaction force of the lateral cable was independent with the configuration of the spacing.

★With continued burial and temperatureincrease, thermogenic gas will eventually be generated.

★It has generally been observed that coal rankincreasestowards the dome structure.

★The rate of down holeincreasein Romaxis highest in Well-A (0.034/100 m). Well-B has a lower rate of down holeincrease(0.012/100 m) while in Well-C the rate is extremely low (0.008/100 m), although in the latter drill hole it is likely there is not enough data to determine an accurate rate.

★However, samples from Well-A have a clear relationship between depth anddecreasingH/C and O/C atomic ratios.

★The averageincreasein gas content down hole in that well was1.7m3/t/100 m.

★Permeability of coalsincreasesas a result of gas desorption and pressure depletion during production.

★The regulations making it more difficult for courts to reject lawsuits took effect May 1, leading to anincreasein cases nationwide last month of 29 percent compared with same period last year, to just over 1 million cases, according to the Supreme People's Court.

★Exportsincreased6.1 percent to $2.34 trillion in 2014, while imports rose 0.4 percent to $1.96 trillion, the General Administration of Customs said on its website. That translated into a trade surplus of $382.46 billion, the highest ever and a 47.2 percentincreaseon 2013.

★According to the McKinsey Global Institute, property pricesincreasedby 60 percent from 2008 to August 2014 in forty Chinese cities, with residential property prices in prime locations in Shanghai now only about 10 percent below levels in New York and Paris.

But while financial aid offers grow increasingly generous, the cost of college isincreasingas well, especially at elite universities.

★According to NBS’s official figures, only one of the 70 surveyed cities showed a year-on-yearincreasein home prices. Across the nation, prices last month fell 5.7% year-on-year.

★In the 70 cities monitored by the official National Bureau of Statistics, Shenzhen in May showed the largest month-on-month priceincrease, a stunning 6.6%.

★Studies show that each additional year a girl attends school canincreaseher earning power by 10 to 20 percent. And when more girls attend school, that can boost a country’s entire per capita income.

The efforts seem to be paying off: In April as the cherry blossoms coincided with Easter and Asian holidays, a record 1.7 million foreign tourists visited. In May, tourists overall doubled to 1.6 million, with bigincreasesfrom China, Hong Kong and South Korea.

The President’s actionsincreasethe chances that anyone attempting to cross the border illegally will be caught and sent back.

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“工程地质”主要术语(词汇)及用法(三)

(2015-06-15)

在学科服务工作中,笔者浏览了若干篇有关“工程地质”方面的英文文献,对其中题名为“Investigation of a pore pressure driven slope failure using a coupled hydro-mechanical model” ,“Practical design of rockfall catchfence at urban area from a numerical analysis approach”and “Development of globally applicable model for near real-time predication of seismically induced landslides”(Engineering Geology, Vol. 178, 21 August 2014, Vol. 172, 8 April 2014 and Vol. 173, 1 May 2014, respectively)等论文印象比较深刻,因为这些文章包含了有关“slope failure” ,“rockfall” 以及“landslide”现场观测与实验模拟方面的主要词汇。为此,笔者把文中相关词汇作了系统收集,有些还附上了例句(尽管approximately, linearly, significantly, slightly, perspective, comparison, “figure”等等并不是专业术语,也收集在其中,将有关例句附后,这是因为这些看似“不起眼”的副词、形容词和名词在相关论文写作中也发挥着重要的作用)。

本期为“工程地质”主要专业术语(词汇)及用法第三部分。

★saturated soils

★seasonal pore pressure conditions

★seasonal affects

★seasonal fluctuations in embankment pore water pressures

★section

★shallow angle

★shallow slips

★shear strength

★shear strength parameters e.g. In the second phase of the simulation, the shear strength parameters (c,f) were input into the model.

★shortcomings e.g. Despite the shortcomings in site data from a modelers' perspective, the situation was typical of current instrumentation practice for a problem slope.

★significantly e.g. These failures were sufficiently shallow that they did not significantly affect the overall stability of the slope.

★simulate e.g. Furthermore, a parametric study was conducted on the permeability to get the best fit between recorded and simulated data.

★site walkover survey

★slightly e.g. There was a drop in water levels with the simulation but this occurred slightly before the recorded drop and the magnitude was approximately half of that recorded. The water levels within the simulation recovered at approximately the same time as the recorded water levels but the water levels peaked at just below the previous high at slightly under 6 m AOD; "This showed that for the latter half of the simulation there was no significant increase in rainfall; there was actually a slight decrease."

slip indicator readings

★slip mass e.g. Assuming an average failure depth of 6 m, the total estimated volume of the slipped mass was in excess 18,900m3.

slip movement

★slope

★slope angle

★slope crest

★slope failure 边坡破坏

★slope geometry

★slope material properties e.g. The dynamic interaction between falling blocks and slope of the CRSP is calculated by empirically driven functions incorporating velocity, friction and slope material properties.

★slope stability analysis

★slope stability assessments e.g. The RS unit is suitable for testing both fully-softened shear strength and residual shear strength parameters that can be used for slope stability assessments of various scenarios.

★slope-stability methods

★slope toe

★slope value e.g. Median, minimum, and maximum slope values calculated from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data by Verdian et al. (2007) are used in tests of the model.

★soft clay

★soil bearing capacity e.g. Analysis of slopes, embankments, and soil bearing capacity, on the other hand, requires good estimations of shear strength from peak to residual.

★soil slope

★soil stiffness e.g. Calculation of foundation settlement, for instance, requires a good estimation of soil stiffness at relatively small strains.

★soil water characteristic curve e.g. There was limited information regarding the soil water characteristic curve of the materials.

★soil wetness

★stability

★steep slope e.g. The same was true for the steep slope entering the river.

★steep topographic slope e.g. Areas of steep topographic slope are often associated with active faulting and hence, likely areas of strong ground shaking.

★stiffness

★spatial distribution e.g. The spatial distribution of seismically induced landslides is dependent on certain physical characteristics of the area in which they occur.

★study area e.g. The study area is located along route 5 in the boroughs of Fort Lee and Edgewater, Bergen County, NJ where high level of cliff, 10 to 27 m high, exists along the road as shown in Fig.1; The paper discusses a fundamental geology and geomechanics of the study area first and then statistical rockfall analysis using Colorado Rock Fall Simulation Program has been performed to estimate the critical impact condition and the capacity of rockfall barrier system required. Finally, a series of three dimensional dynamic finite element analyes is performed to provide additional verification of the design criterion made by CRSP analysis and to suggest the detailed design parameters to accommodate specific field conditions.

★summarize e.g. The realistic and modeled root depth distributions are summarized in Fig.11 and vegetation properties are summarized in Table 3.

★surface boundary condition

★surface geology

★surface irregularity

surface pore water pressure

★surface roughness

★swell-induced soil movements e.g. The developed correlations, along with the existing models, were then used to predict vertical soil swell movements of four case studies where swell-induced soil movements were monitored.

swell-induced volume changes

★tailings e.g. Extraction of the targeted resource results in the concurrent production of a significant volume of waste material, including tailings, which are mixtures of crushed rock and processing fluids from mills, washeries or concentrators that remain after the extraction of economic metals, minerals, mineral fuels or coal; The volume of tailings is normally far in excess of the liberated resource, and the tailings often contain potentially hazardous contaminants; A priority for a reasonable and responsible mining organization must be to proactively isolate the tailings so as to forestall them from entering groundwaters, rivers, lakes and the wind.

★tailings dams e.g. It is therefore accepted practice for tailings to be stored in isolated impoundments under water and behind dams.

★tension crack of the slip

★tension cracks

★threshold e.g. For example, if we define 20% probability of a landslide to be the threshold, any probability equal to or greater than 20% will then be defined as a landslide prediction; By evaluating the percentage of true positives and true negatives from a model, we can decide upon the optimum-probability threshold for classification as a landslide prediction; this optimum value is in turn dependent upon the balance between high values of true positives and true negatives with low values of false positives and false negatives.

★time interval

★top boundary

★top of the slope

★topographic slope

★topographical survey

★unit weight data

★unsaturated hydrological properties

★unsaturated soils e.g. To date, however, there is very limited experimental evidence of unsaturated soil behavior under large deformations, and the corresponding residual shear strength properties, while the soil is being subjected to controlled-suction states.

★upper slope

★value e.g. Therefore low CTI values result from higher slope values and small drainage areas, whereas high CTI values result from lower slope values and larger drainage areas. Note that this value does not consider wetness contributed from the climate of an area, but is purely dependent on the topographic influence on wetness.

★variation

★volume change properties

water level e.g. The Shetran simulation showed that there was no reason for such a large water level drop mid simulation and again no reason for a new higher water table during the latter half of the simulation; the low water levels occurred during the summer months, when evapotranspiration is highest; from the measured results it could be seen that an event took place which resulted in elevated water levels in the upper part of the lower slope; from Fig.16 it can be seen that the water levels below the upper slope increase by almost 4 m and the water levels at the BH105 location increase by just less than 1 m; such an increase corresponds to water levels in the latter period of monitoring.

★water level variance

★water regime e.g. From these preliminary analyses it could be seen that the water regime within the slope was governed by more than the surface processes investigated; therefore, a fully coupled hydromechanical model of the slope was run to see if any light could be shed on the pore water pressure regime.

★water table e.g. The report stated that this water table rise occurred as a result of heavy rainfall.

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“工程地质”主要术语(词汇)及用法(二)

(2015-06-01)

在学科服务工作中,笔者浏览了若干篇有关“工程地质”方面的英文文献,对其中题名为“Investigation of a pore pressure driven slope failure using a coupled hydro-mechanical model” ,“Practical design of rockfall catchfence at urban area from a numerical analysis approach”and “Development of globally applicable model for near real-time predication of seismically induced landslides”(Engineering Geology, Vol. 178, 21 August 2014, Vol. 172, 8 April 2014 and Vol. 173, 1 May 2014, respectively)等论文印象比较深刻,因为这些文章包含了有关“slope failure” ,“rockfall” 以及“landslide”现场观测与实验模拟方面的主要词汇。为此,笔者把文中相关词汇作了系统收集,有些还附上了例句。尽管approximately, linearly, significantly, slightly, perspective, comparison, “figure”等等并不是专业术语,也收集在其中,将有关例句附后,这是因为这些看似“不起眼”的副词、形容词和名词在相关论文中也发挥着重要的作用。

下面是“工程地质”主要专业术语(词汇)及用法第二部分。

landslide area e.g. We cannot be certain whether landslides did or did not occur in the regions outside of the mapped landslide area.

★landslide dam

★landslide distribution e.g. Empirical studies suggest that the bedrock lithology, slope, seismic intensity, topographical amplification of ground motion, fracture systems in the underlying bedrock, groundwater conditions, and also the distribution of pre existing landslides all have some impact on the landslide distribution, among factors.

landslide hazard modeling e.g. The main objective of landslide hazard modeling is to predict areas prone to landslides either spatially or temporally.

★landslide inventories e.g. In order to apply this approach to a global data set, we use multiple landslide inventories to calibrate the model. Using the model formula previously determined (using the Wenchuan earthquake data), we use the four datasets discussed in Section 1.3.1 in our global database to determine the coefficients for the global model.

★landslide probability model e.g. The resulting database is used to build a predicative model of the probability of landslide occurrence.

★landslide susceptibility

★landslide observation e.g. Cells are classified as landslides if any portion of that grid cell contains a landslide observation, in order to easily incorporate binary observations into the logistic regression.

★landslides e.g.Substantial effort has been invested to understand where seismically induced landslides may occur in the future, as they are a costly and frequently fatal threat in mountainous regions; Performance of the regression model is assessed using statistical goodness-of-fit metrics and a qualitative review to determine which combination of the proxies provides both the optimum predication of landslide-affected areas and minimizes the false alarms in non-landslide zones; Approximately 5% of all earthquake-related fatalities are caused by seismically induced landslides, in some cases causing a majority of non-shaking deaths; Possible case histories of earthquake-triggered landslides to add to the global dataset include….

★landslip

★limit equilibrium methods

★line slope profile

★linearly e.g. In order to determine if such an increase in water levels could be the cause of increased down slope movement the bottom head boundary condition of both the Shetran and Flac-tp model was increased linearly by 0 to 4 m over the length of the lower slope and linearly by 4 to 5 m over the length of the upper slope.

★low angle failure

★lower slope

★macroscopic indicators e.g. Unsaturated residual shear strength can also be used as a macroscopic indicator of the nature of micro-structural changes experienced by the soils when subjected to drying.

★material parameters

★mechanical analysis

★mechanical landslide modeling e.g. These data were originally calculated for the purpose of mechanical landslide modeling, and are used here as a statistical constraint on landslide susceptibility.

★mechanical parameters

★mechanical propertied

★mechanical response

★mechanical strains

★mechanism e.g. The output pore water pressure were coupled to a mechanical analysis using the Flac-tp flow program in an attempt to distinguish the mechanisms active within the slope which were likely to produce the recorded pore water pressure.

★medium to low compressibility

★mid height

★mine tailings dams e.g. This paper reviews these factors, covering the characteristics, types and magnitudes, environmental impacts, and remediation of mine tailings dam failures.

★minimal e.g. The brown sand and gravel at depth were also omitted from the model as their effects on the surface failure were assumed to be minimal.

★minimum e.g. This conceptual model allowed the deformation of elements within the slope to be kept to a minimum.

★moisture content e.g. We use the Compound Topographic Index (CTI) to represent moisture content of the area.

★model output

★moment inertia

★monitoring campaign

★movement e.g. At this time the measured displacement showed a sharp up slope movement followed by a steady but increasing down slope movement; …when a sudden down slope movement was measured; the nature of the event was uncertain yet it could be seen that the increase in down slope movement occurred after the water level increase.

★movement rates

★null hypothesis e.g. We also use the p-values (defined as the probability of finding a test statistic value as great as the observed test statistic value, assuming that the null hypothesis is true) in order to assess the significance of each regression coefficient. In this case, the null hypothesis is that the regression coefficient is equal to zero. We reject the null hypothesis if the p-value is less than the significance value (α) we choose; here, we useα=0.001, corresponding to a 99% confidence level. Therefore if p<α, we reject the null hypothesis, and thereby assume that the regression coefficient is not equal to zero, and equals the computed value (Peng et al., 2002).

★numerical studies e.g. Those numerical studies mentioned above successfully validated the usage of supplemental means for the full scale tests and also contributed to develop and optimize new type of rockfall barrier system effectively. However, very little research has been devoted to the more practical analysis of the optimal rockfall barrier system over the various unfavorable impact conditions which can usually happen in actual field conditions.

★overlying

★parametric study

★peak ground acceleration e.g. Estimates of the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and peak ground velocity (PGV) for each event are adapted from the USGS Shakemap Atlas 2.0 (Garcia et al., 2012)

★peak ground velocity

★peak strengths

★peak values of movement

★periodic surface erosion

★periodic walkover surveys

★permeability

★perspective e.g. Despite the shortcomings in site data from a modelers' perspective, the situation was typical of current instrumentation practice for a problem slope.

★phreatic surface e.g. The slope, however, was observed to remain largely saturated for most of the year with a phreatic surface near or at the surface.

★plasticity

★plasticity index

★pore pressure

★pore pressure fluctuations

★pore pressure transfer

★pore pressure variations

★pore water pressure

★predictor variables e.g. We begin modeling by assessing qualitative relationships within the data, moving forward by using logistic regression as a statistical method for establishing a functional form between the predictor variables and the outcomes (Figure 3). We iterate over combinations of predictor variables and outcomes within the model, focusing first on one training event (Wenchuan, China), with the ultimate goal of expanding the analysis to global landslide datasets.

★preferential drainage paths

previously e.g. As discussed previously,…

★probability of landslide occurrence

★profile

★progressive failure 渐进破坏 e.g. (Abstract of a paper entitled “Progressive Failure of Lined Waste Impoundments”) “Progressive failure can occur alonggeosynthetic interfaces (土工合成材料界面) in lined waste landfills when peak strengths are greater than residual strengths. A displacement-softening formulation for geosynthetic interfaces was used in finite-element analyses of lined waste impoundments to evaluate the significance of progressive failure effects. First, the Kettleman Hills landfill was analyzed, and good agreement was found between the calculated and observed failure heights. Next, parametric analyses of municipal solid waste landfills were performed. Progressive failure was significant in all cases. Limit equilibrium analyses were also performed, and recommendations are provided for incorporating progressive failure effects in limit equilibrium analyses of municipal solid waste landfills”.

★range

★reference

★reference grid point e.g. Due to the different grids of the Flac-tv flow model and the Shetran model there was no reference grid point, for which readings could be taken, at the exact same depth for both models. The closest similar reference points were at 1.91m depth for the Flac-tv flow model and 1.5 m depth for the Shetran model.

★reliability e.g. Full scale rockfall tests to assess the reliability of the structure and also to investigate the interactions of the rockfall catchfence subjected to the impacts were carried out by Peila et al.

residual failure surface

★residual friction angles

★residual shear strength parameters

★residual slope failure

residual strengths

★restitution coefficient

★rigid body mechaics

★rock mass

★rockfall barrier system e.g. Since the impact response of the rockfall catchfence has complicated phenomena caused by materials elastic and plastic behaviors of each member (i.e. steel post, nets and cables, etc.) and also influenced by various factors; such as impact angle, impact energy, dimension of block, strength of each member, mechanical stiffness of rockfall catchfence, etc., many researchers have devoted efforts to make a more comprehensive understanding of various facets of rockfall barrier system.

★rockfall catchfences e.g.For the mitigation measure of rockfall hazards, rockfall catchfences are widely adapted in the potential hazard area to intercept and hold the falling materials.

★rockfall hazards e.g.The road has been exposed to high potential rockfall hazards as a result of the fractured columnar natural slope condition with post tectonic joints.

★rockfall protection kits

★rockfall protection mesh

★root cause

★root cause of elevated pore pressure

★rooting depth

★rotational slope failure

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“工程地质”主要术语(词汇)及用法(一)

(2015-05-11)

在学科服务工作中,笔者浏览了若干篇有关“工程地质”方面的英文文献,对其中题名为“Investigation of a pore pressure driven slope failure using a coupled hydro-mechanical model” ,“Practical design of rockfall catchfence at urban area from a numerical analysis approach”and “Development of globally applicable model for near real-time predication of seismically induced landslides”(Engineering Geology, Vol. 178, 21 August 2014, Vol. 172, 8 April 2014 and Vol. 173, 1 May 2014, respectively)等论文印象比较深刻,因为这些文章包含了有关“slope failure” ,“rockfall” 以及“landslide”现场观测与实验模拟方面的主要词汇。为此,笔者把文中相关词汇作了系统收集,有些还附上了例句。尽管approximately, linearly, significantly, slightly, perspective, comparison, “figure”等等并不是专业术语,也收集在其中,将有关例句附后,这是因为这些看似“不起眼”的副词、形容词和名词在相关论文中也发挥着重要的作用。

下面是“工程地质”主要专业术语(词汇)及用法第一部分。

abundance e.g.The abundance of available water near the surface would reduce the depth that the tree roots would need to penetrate to find water.

★actual ground conditions on site

angle e.g.The lower slope is inclined at angles generally below 10°; the upper slope presents a general slope angle below 35°degrees.

★approximately e.g. This weather station is located approximately 24 km from the site of the Belvoir slope;the timing of the modeled increase lags behind the timing of the observed water level increase by approximately two months.

★back analysis

★back analysis of the failure

★bare ground

★be referred to

★bottom boundary pore pressure e.g.The hydrological models were initially run with hydrostatic conditions from the beginning of January 2006 to the end of December 2008 with a bottom boundary pore pressure fixed to initial conditions.

★boulder clay

★breach e.g. A landslip which led to the breach of the sewer that runs through this area occurred immediately to the northeast of the site on 17th April 1989.

★case study e.g. Therefore restricting water uptake by roots to 0.5 m depth would reasonably simulate shallow variations of the phreatic surface in this particular case study.

★cemented paste backfill

★clay material

★climate parameters

★cohesion value

★comparison e.g. At BH104 the displacement increased and there was an improved comparison with the observed data. At location BH104 there was also a similar good comparison with the observed data.

★complex

★complex pore pressure distribution

★conceptual model e.g. A simplified conceptual model was developed in which the levels of the horizons were simplified in order to preserve element geometry with the Flat-tp flow program.

★constant e.g. This movement was subsequently recovered and the comparison is recovered also until January 2008, where the measured displacement rate increased, whereas the calculated rate remains constant. The levels of measured and calculated head are fairly constant throughout the period monitored.

★constructed and natural slopes

★contributor

★contributor to the instability

★coupled hydro-mechanical model

★coupled unsaturated mechanical behavior

★crest of the slope

★deformation

★discuss e.g. This is due to the water level being at the surface as discussed earlier; as discussed previously…

★dynamic discrete numerical analyses e.g. However, these limitations of the full scale tests have been partly resolved by dynamic discrete numerical analyses recently.

displacement e.g. The displacement at this point were then re-set to zero; very large displacements were produced at the surface within the upper slope indicating shallow surface failures.

★earthquake magnitude e.g. The estimated distribution of shaking is in turn dependent on earthquake magnitude, fault location, and ground motion predication equations, as constrained by observed peak ground motion and intensity data.

earthquake-induced landslide e.g. Mapped landslide data are available from various researchers in the field of earthquake-induced landslide research.

★earthquake-triggered landslides e.g. Ultimately, the success of this model depends on its ability to correctly predict locations of earthquake-triggered landslides.

★elastic-plastic deformation e.g. As opposed to rigid structures such as rocksheds and earthfill embankments, the rockfall catchfence is performed by dissipating impact energy through the elastic-plastic deformation in conjunction with energy dissipators.

★embankment

★embankment model

★erosive action

★erosive activity

★erosive periods

★failing slope

★failure geometry

★failure mechanism

★failure plane

★failure surface

★fault

★field conditions

★Figure, Fig., e.g. It can be seen from Fig.12 that…; as shown in Fig.12; it seemed from this chart that…; the Sheltran simulation was supported by the rainfall data, which is also shown in Fig.12; the simulated water levels at location BH105 are plotted against the recorded water levels in Fig.13; Fig.14 shows the pore pressure variation within the made ground of the lower slope for both models after the pore pressure transfer.

★fit e.g. A parametric study conducted on the stiffness of the clay materials to get the best fit with the recorded displacement.

★fixed pore water pressure e.g. The model was then run with fixed pore water pressure to establish the mechanical equilibrium under self weight to be reached.

★friction angles e.g.The modeling was performed with an isotropic constitutive model where the soft clay was defined with friction angles varying from 18-22°and cohesion value was reduced to zero. The first simulations were run with maximum bulk and shear moduli and the maximum recorded soft clay friction angle of 22°.

★frictional coefficients

★frictional energy dissipators

geological investigation

★geological layers

★geological model

geology and geotechnical properties

★geosynthetic interfaces 土工合成材料界面 e.g. Progressive failure can occur along geosynthetic interfaces in lined waste landfills when peak strengths are greater than residual strengths.

★geotechnical model

★geotechnical parameters

★glacial deposits

★goodness-of-fit e.g.Performance of the regression model is assessed using statistical goodness-of-fit metrics and a qualitative review to determine which combination of the proxies provides both the optimum predication of landslide-affected areas and minimizes the false alarms in non-landslide zones.

★gradual transition

★ground investigation

★ground motion

★ground motion distribution e.g. We assume that the ShakeMap software provides a reasonably accurate estimation of the ground motion distribution for each earthquake, and the uncertainty in these calculation is inherently part of the uncertainty in the landslide model.

★groundwater levels

high peak strengths

★hydro-mechanical model 流体力学模型 e.g. A more sophisticated coupled hydro-mechanical model based on Shetran and Flac-tp flow was used to determine the effect of fluctuations of pore pressures, rainfall and mechanical strains on slip movement.

★impact angles e.g. Fig.11 shows the results of frequency analysis for kinetic energy, impact velocity, bounce height and impact angle at the given analysis point of Sta. 3 + 38 m; The impact angles of the group A are widely distributed from 5°to 55°, whereas those of the group B range from 45°to 65°.

★impact energy e.g. …to estimate the direct relations between impact angles and impact energies.

★impact responses

★in-built

★influential factor

★infrastructure slopes and cuttings

★initial coefficient

★initial failure

★initial friction angle

★instability

★install

★intrusive dikes

kinetic energy e.g. Fig. 12 presents a close relation between the impact angle and corresponding kinetic energy and bounce height.

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再谈“望文生义”是翻译之大忌

(2015-04-29)

上周末在编辑我校学报社科版2015年第1期拟用稿件的过程中,我发现其中的两篇论文的英文摘要是“机器翻译”之“杰作” --- 其中一篇尽管词不达意,错误百出,但没有出现极其低级的错误,但另一篇一普通高校研二学生的论文英文摘要不仅错误百出,而且出现了几个非常低级的错误,最明显的一个低级错误是将“节(日风)俗”翻成“section vulgar”,弄得我哭笑不得。按常理,这样的低级错误不该出现在研二学生身上,因为绝大部分研究生有英语“六”级或“四”级的“坚实”基础,一般会将“节俗”翻成“festival custom”,而不可能是section vulgar”!

我本人并不是在彻底否定“机器翻译软件”。我认为,任何“机器翻译软件”,甚至是质量颇高的“高级翻译软件”,我们只能借助其,绝对不可百分之百地依靠它。如果确实由于主观或客观原因非用“机器翻译软件”不可,这样的“译文”一定要亲自过目至少两遍以上,最好在投寄之前请有关专家进行润色。很显然,如果上面提到的那位研二学生在投寄论文之前再过目一下他的“机器”翻译之“译文”的话,那个“section vulgar”低级错误就不会跑到编辑部。

在学术刊物编辑部,编辑们会发现机器翻译之“杰作”;在公众场合,大家也会看到由于机器翻译闹出的大笑话。细心的市民和旅客已经注意到西安北客站曾把“请在一米线外等候”翻译成 Please wait outside a noodle, 这肯定是机器翻译的,正确的翻译应为 Please wait behind the yellow line。

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“良性循环”“恶性循环”的翻译

(2015-04-07)

笔者上学期期末在润色一老师的英文论文时,发现这位作者将“良性循环”翻成“good circle”,将“恶性循环”译成“bad circle”,这些译法是不确切的。

其实,“良性循环”与“恶性循环”应分别译成virtuous circle”和“vicious circle”。下面几则例子是“virtuous circle”和“vicious circle”在各种实际场合的应用。

★Growth and specialization in an enlarged Europe: is a virtuous circle possible?

★A Virtuous Cycle in the Amazon: Reducing Mercury Exposure from Fish Consumption Requires Sustainable Agriculture

★We show how, with the right mix of policies, these same feedbacks can become virtuous cycles that lead to higher employee, customer satisfaction and additional resources to invest in still greater service quality improvement.

★... because as we get economies of scale, and demand for solar and wind and other renewable energies grows, obviously that can help drive down the overall price, make it that much for efficient, and we start getting avirtuous cyclethat is good for the economy and creates jobs here in America.

★Based on the hypothesis that a vicious cycle of dental fear exists, whereby the consequences of fear tend to maintain that fear, the relationship between dental fear, self-reported oral health status and the use of dental services was explored.

★Moreover, results show that a bail-in of 8 % of total bank balance sheet can be really effective in breaking the vicious circle and preventing contagion between banks and public finances.

★The vicious cycle of lettuce corky root disease: effects of farming system, nitrogen fertilizer and herbicide

★As Americans, we believe there’s nothing wrong with making a profit. But there is something wrong with making that profit by trapping hard-working men and women in avicious cycleof debt.

★If you’re making that profit by trapping hardworking Americans into avicious cycleof debt, you’ve got to find a new business model.

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Ratio的各种用法

(2015-03-24)

在论文写作中,ratio也是一个非常“实用”的单词,其汉语翻译是比,比率[the relation between two similar magnitudes with respect to the number of times the first contains the second, or a relationship between two numbers of the same kind (e.g., objects, persons, students, spoonfuls, units of whatever identical dimension), e.g. "the ratio of a to b, expressed as a:b or a/b."], 比例(proportional relation, rate, e.g. "the ratio between acceptances and rejections.")等,例如,“The best-fit NFe values vary somewhat between the synthetic allophane samples, but do not vary systematically with the Al:Si ratio.”从下面的几则实例中我们可看到ratio的各种用法。

★Birthrates are low throughout East Asia. The ratio of people 15 to 64 to those 65 and older will plummet from about 7 to 1 to 3 to1 in the next 15 years in Taiwan, South Korea, and Hong Kong, dragging down growth.

★Researchers have warned that large sex-ratio imbalances could lead to instability as more men remain unmarried, raising the risks of anti-social and violent behavior.

★The ratio of width to height of standard-definition television is 4:3.

★From volumetric swell tests, the ratio between vertical and volumetric swell strains was close to 0.5 (1/2).

★Thus, the present results suggest a model of allophane structure in which one fundamental structural type, containing a complete octahedral sheet, can accommodate a range of Al:Si ratios.

★The observation that the best fit models for the 2:1, 1:1, and 1:3 allophane samples were similar to one another suggests that considerably additional Si may be incorporated into the allophane structure without large changes in the fundamental structure of the particle.

★Harder (1976, 1978) also noted that the formation of Fe-rich clay minerals was promoted by synthesis at pH>7, and that nontronite formed in solutions with Fe:Si between 1:10 and 1:3.

★The widely used olivine + pyroxene → serpentine (ol + px → srp) reaction is quantitatively inconsistent with observed ratios of olivine to pyroxene and olivine to serpentine in CM carbonaceous chondrites.

★A fundamental challenge in defining the allophane structure is that allophane range in composition from high-Al types, with Al:Si close to 2, to high-Si types, with Al:Si near 0.5. An imogolite-like nanoball allophane structure modeled by Creton et al. (2008a) has an Al:Si ratio of 2:1, with Si atoms in individual orthosilicate units bonded to a rolled octahedral Al sheet. If higher-Si allophanes form similar nanoballls, the structure must be modified to accommodate considerably more Si.

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With的强大功能

(2015-03-10)

With是一个普通介词,但它的功能之强大有时超出了我们的“想象”。在图书馆学科服务工作中,笔者阅读了大量英文文献,特别是英美学者发表在世界顶级学术期刊上的论文,发现英美学者在撰写论文时,使用With的频次远远高于我们中国的学者。例如,英美学者会把我们中国学者的“Roadway instability has always been a major concern in deep underground coal mines where the surrounding rock strata and coal seams are weak and the in-situ stresses are high”换个方式表达成“ Roadway instability has always been a major concern in deep underground coal mines with the weak surrounding rock strata and coal seams and the high in-situ stresses”;又如,如果把“Indonesia is currently the largest exporter of thermal coal in the world, which country’s total coal production was over 350 million tons in 2011”改成“Indonesia is currently the largest exporter of thermal coal in the world, with total coal production of over 350 million tons in 2011”,句子似乎更紧凑了;再如,“This is also true under conditions such as the anthracite field, where coal seams arehighly pitching”可改成“This is also true under conditions such as the anthracite field withhighly-pitched coal seams”。不难看出,with在这里发挥了非常重要的作用。

为了帮助读者更进一步掌握with的用法,笔者还从英美学者的论文中搜集到若干下列例句:

The bulk of the increase is from low cost surface mining operations in coal seams ranging from 15.2 to 30.5m thick with comparatively shallow overburden.

★This optimum value is in turn dependent upon the balance between high values of true positives and true negatives with low values of false positives and false negatives.

★Variation of elastic modulus and strength with CO2injection time….

★Such units are able to evaluate the variation along a core in the concentration of multiple elements, with detection limits in the ppm range depending on the element concerned.

★The whole purpose was to standardize wet oxidation potential methods with a variety of coals.

★With time, allophane transforms to more ordered clay minerals, but the end products of this transformation are dependent upon temperature, oxidation state, and the chemical composition of the solution.

★In a sample with 1 mol.% of Al replaced by Fe, if Fe is randomly distributed, most Fe atoms should be surrounded by Al atoms and should have no Fe next neighbors.

★Additional experiment, not described here, indicated no systematic change in NFe with sample age up to 2 y.

★The AIC value decreases with better model fit, but increases with complexity of the model.

★Moisture content decreases significantly with depth in some boreholes.

★Both firms fall under the Cheung Kong Group, a leading multi-national conglomerate with operations in more than 50 countries.

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“岩石力学”主要术语(词汇)及其用法

(2015-01-19)

由于学科服务工作需要,笔者最近浏览了Estimation of joint trace length probability distribution function in igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks(火成岩、沉积岩及变质岩节理迹长概率分布函数估计)(Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, November 2014, Volume 47, Issue 6, pp 2353-2361),Coal Mine Roadway Stability in Soft Rock: A Case Study(煤矿软岩巷道稳定性实例研究)(Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, November 2014, Volume 47, Issue 6, pp 2225-2238),Mine Overburden Dump Failure: A Case Study[矿山覆排土(石)场破坏实例研究](Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, April 2014, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 297-309),Assessments of Strength Anisotropy and Deformation Behavior of Banded Amphibolite Rocks(带状闪石强度各向异性及变形特征估算)(Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, April 2014, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 429-438),In-situ Rock Spalling Strength near Excavation Boundaries(开挖边界附近现场岩石剥落强度)(Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, March 2014, Volume 47, Issue 2, pp 659-675),Relationship Between Pre-failure and Post-failure Mechanical Properties of Rock Material of Different Origin(不同来源岩石材料破坏前与破坏后力学特性关系)(Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, February 2014),Coal waste management practices in the USA: an overview[美国煤渣(煤矸石等)管理实践综述](International Journal of Coal Science & Technology, June 2014, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 163-176),Overview and modeling of mechanical and thermomechanical impact of underground coal gasification exploitation(地下矿井煤气化开发的力学与热力学影响之回顾与模拟)(Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, March 2014),Poromechanics of adsorption-induced swelling in microporous materials: a new poromechanical model taking into account strain effects on adsorption(微孔材料吸附引起的膨胀孔隙介质力学:考虑应变对吸附影响的新孔隙介质力学模型)(Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics, May 2014)等英文文献,并对有关主要术语(词汇)与例句进行了收集与整理,供撰写相关主题英文论文的作者参考。

★angle e.g. Under uniaxial test, the banded amphibolite has a U-shaped anisotropy with maximum strength at β = 90° and minimum strength is obtained when β = 30°.

★back analysis e.g. These findings were supported by back-analysis of case histories where failure had been carefully documented, using either Kirsch’s solution (with approximated circular tunnel geometry and hence σ max = 3σ 1 −σ 3) or simplified numerical stress modeling (with a smooth tunnel wall boundary) to approximate the maximum tangential stress σ max at the excavation boundary; This paper back analyse material properties and investigates the probable mechanism of this OB failure.

★banded amphibolite 带状闪石

★banded amphibolite rocks e.g. However, far too little attention has been paid to banded amphibolite rocks. This study aim to evaluate strength and deformation anisotropy behavior of banded amphibolite rocks.

★behavior

★behavior of structures e.g. To predict the behavior of structures in and on jointed rock masses, it is necessary to characterize the geomechanical properties of joints and intact rock.

★coal waste disposal facility e.g. The primary purpose of a coal waste disposal facility is to dispose of unusable waste materials from mining.

★coal waste impoundments e.g. However, at some sites coal waste impoundments serve to provide water storage capacity for processing and flood attenuation.

★compression and shear waves

★continuum numerical methods e.g. Well established tools including limiting equilibrium and continuum numerical methods have been used to understand and identify the failure kinematics of this dump.

★deformability test

★deformation e.g. Detailed numerical modeling was conducted to evaluate the roadway stability and deformation under different roof support scenarios.

★deformation behavior

★drop modulus e.g. It was found that the drop modulus D pf increases with rock strength σ ci, following a power (幂) function with an approximate power of two.

★dynamic mechanical properties e.g. The results obtained have shown that the dynamic mechanical properties of amphibolite(闪石) rocks have different values concerning banding plane.

★earth and rock embankments and dams e.g. These support all aspects of the regulatory environment including the design and construction of earth and rock embankments and dams, as well as a wide variety of waste disposal structures.

★elastic deformation test e.g. The results of elastic deformation test show that there is no clear dependence on microstructures characteristics of subtype-amphibolite rocks that controlling modulus “shape-anisotropy”.

★excavation boundaries e.g. In this article, it is suggested that these approaches ignore one of the most important factors, the irregularity of the excavation boundary, when interpreting the in-situ rock strength.

★exponential 指数 e.g. Relations estimating the residual strength and dilatancy from the pre-peak and peak state parameters are in logarithmic (对数) and exponential functional forms, respectively.

★exponential trend e.g. With an exponential trend, the D pf/E s ratio increases with decreasing E i/σ ci ratio.

★failure

★failure of an out-of-pit OB dump e.g. Recently, the failure of an out-of-pit OB dump at an Indian Colliery was reported.

★failure of open pit dumps e.g. Various literatures have reported the failure of open pit dumps and the consequences in loss of life, production and impact on neighboring amenities .

★geometry properties e.g. Joint trace length is one of the most difficult properties to measure accurately, but it may be possible to record other geometrical properties of exposed joints accurately.

★geometry properties of joints

★goodness-of-fit (GOF)

★goodness-of-fit (GOF) tests e.g. Consequently, goodness-of-fit (GOF) tests were applied on these data.

★in-seam and out-of-seam dilution mining e.g. Processing of as-mined coal typically results in considerable amount of coarse and fine coal processing wastes because of in-seam and out-of-seam dilution mining.

★intact rock parameters e.g. The aim is to relate commonly used intact rock parameters of pre-failure (tangent modulus E i and secant modulus E s) and peak strength (σ ci) states to parameters of the post-failure state under unconfined compression.

★joint

★joint length e.g. Since joint length has a range of values, it is useful to have an understanding of the distribution of these values in order to predict how the extreme values may be compared to the values obtained from a small sample.

★joint systems e.g. For this purpose, three datasets of joint systems from nine exposures of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks are studied.

★joint trace length 节理迹长

★joint trace length distribution e.g. According to these GOF tests, the lognormal distribution was found to be the best probability distribution function for representing a joint trace length distribution.

★joint trace length probability distribution function 节理迹长概率分布函数

★jointed rock masses e.g. To predict the behavior of structures in and on jointed rock masses, it is necessary to characterize the geomechanical properties of joints and intact rock.

★logarithmic 对数 e.g. Relations estimating the residual strength and dilatancy from the pre-peak and peak state parameters are in logarithmic and exponential functional forms, respectively.

★logarithmic and exponential functional forms e.g. Relations estimating the residual strength and dilatancy from the pre-peak and peak state parameters are in logarithmic and exponential functional forms, respectively.

★longwall method e.g. The mine was using a longwall method to extract coal at a depth of approximately 350 m.

★modulus e.g. Thus, this study recommended that further research be undertaken regarding the role of modulus “shape-anisotropy” within the same lithotype.

★overburden e.g. Under the high overburden and tectonic stresses, roadways could collapse or experience excessive deformation, which not only endangers mining personnel but could also reduce the functionality of the roadway and halt production.

★overburden (OB) dump e.g. The improper management of the overburden (OB) dump can result in stability issues which may affect safety and production of the mine.

★peak e.g. In unconfined conditions, data related to the post-peak region of the intact rock parameters are not common as pre-peak and peak state parameters of stress–strain behavior; For the estimation of post-failure parameters in terms of the pre-peak and peak states, the functional relations were assessed.

★post-failure e.g. For problems involving rock in the failed state around structures, proper choice of plastic constitutive laws and post-failure parameters is important for the modeling of the failed state; Post-failure parameters are the drop modulus (D pf), representing the slope of the falling portion in brittle state, residual strength (σ cr), and dilatancy angle (ψ°).

★pre-failure and post-failure e.g. The results from the pre-failure and peak state testing parts were processed and compared to the post-failure stress–strain parameters.

★pre-failure and post-failure mechanical properties 破坏前与破坏后力学特性

★pre-failure and post-failure mechanical properties of rock material of different origin 不同来源岩石材料破坏前与破坏后力学特性

★probability distribution function 概率分布函数 e.g. According to these GOF tests, the lognormal (对数正态) distribution was found to be the best probability distribution function for representing a joint trace length distribution.

★range e.g. Strength anisotropic index ranges between 0.96 and 1.47. It seems that the high range value of anisotropic index is mainly due to slight undulation of foliation planes, that being not perfectly straight.

★ratio e.g. The ratio of σ max /UCS is related to the observed depth of failure and failure initiation occurs when σ max is roughly equal to 0.4 ± 0.1 UCS; With an exponential trend, the D pf/E s ratio increases with decreasing E i/σ ci ratio;Due to their lack of long-range crystal ordering, allophane are difficult to study and their structure is still not completely understood, particularly with respect to the effect of widely varying Al:Si ratios in the same fundamental structural unit; Thus, the present results suggest a model of allophane structure in which one fundamental structural type, containing a complete octahedral sheet, can accommodate a range of Al:Si rations.

★residual friction angle e.g. It has been found that the residual friction angle of the material comprising the dump structural unit dominates stability.

★residual strength e.g. Mobilization of residual strength can occur by operational induced strains and/or the presence of water.

★resultant failure e.g. The resultant failure is manifest as a bilinear wedge movement of two ridged blocks defined by linear rupture planes.

★roadway

★roadway deformation e.g. The monitoring data indicated that the roadway deformation in the experimental section was at least 40–50 % less than the previous sections.

★roadway failure mechanism

★roadway instability

★roadway stability

★rock failure e.g. It is demonstrated using the Mine-by tunnel notch breakout example that when the realistic “as-built” excavation boundary condition is honored, the “actual” in-situ rock strength, given by 0.8 UCS, can be applied to simulate progressive brittle rock failure process satisfactorily.

★rock spalling strength e.g. In addition, it has been suggested that the in-situ rock spalling strength, i.e., the strength of the wall of an excavation when spalling initiates, can be set to the crack initiation stress determined from laboratory tests or field microseismic monitoring.

★rock strength e.g. The interpreted, reduced in-situ rock strength of 0.4 ± 0.1 UCS without considering geometry irregularity is therefore only an “apparent” rock strength.

★rocks e.g. igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks (火成岩、沉积岩及变质岩)

★shear strength

★shear strength of the foundation e.g. The shear strength of the foundation was fully mobilized and provided a slip surface for the overlying dump material.

★soft rock

★soil and rock mechanics e.g. Safe, economical and environmentally acceptable management of coal waste involves consideration of geology, soil and rock mechanics, hydrology, hydraulics, geochemistry, soil science, agronomy and environmental sciences.

★spalling strength e.g. In addition, it has been suggested that the in-situ rock spalling strength, i.e., the strength of the wall of an excavation when spalling initiates, can be set to the crack initiation stress determined from laboratory tests or field microseismic monitoring; It is demonstrated that the “actual” in-situ spalling strength of massive rocks is not equal to 0.4 ± 0.1 UCS, but can be as high as 0.8 ± 0.05 UCS when surface irregularities are considered.

★spoil e.g. In any open cast mine, the management of stripped spoil during mining is crucial to the mine’s successful operation.

★strength anisotropic index 强度各向异性指数 e.g. Strength anisotropic index ranges between 0.96 and 1.47.

★strength anisotropy 强度各向异性 e.g. Assessment of strength anisotropy in transversely isotropic rocks has been one of the most challenging subjects in rock engineering.

★strength of massive rocks e.g. It is widely accepted that the in-situ strength of massive rocks is approximately 0.4 ± 0.1 UCS, where UCS is the uniaxial compressive strength obtained from unconfined tests using diamond drilling core samples with a diameter around 50 mm.

★stress–strain curve e.g. Under compression, gathering data related to the post-failure part of the stress–strain curve requires stiff servo-controlled testing systems; Complete stress–strain curves were generated for various intact rock of different origin.

★stripped spoil e.g. In any open cast mine, the management of stripped spoil during mining is crucial to the mine’s successful operation.

★support vector machine

★support vector machine (SVM) model e.g. support vector machine (SVM) model is used to predict the joint trace length; SVM is a novel machine learning method, which is a powerful tool used to solve the problem characterized by small sample and non-linearity with a good generalization performance.

★surrounding rock

★surrounding rock strata and coal seams e.g. Roadway instability has always been a major concern in deep underground coal mines where the surrounding rock strata and coal seams are weak and the in situ stresses are high.

★trace length e.g. Among geometry properties of joints, trace length has a vital importance, because it affects rock mass strength and controls the stability of the rock structures in jointed rock masses.

★transversely isotropic rocks e.g. Assessment of strength anisotropy in transversely isotropic rocks has been one of the most challenging subjects in rock engineering.

★ultrasonic pulse test

uniaxial compressive strength

★value e.g. Therefore low CTI values result from higher slope values and small drainage areas, whereas high CTI values result from lower slope values and larger drainage areas. Note that this value does not consider wetness contributed from the climate of an area, but is purely dependent on the topographic influence on wetness.

★Young modulus 杨氏模量 e.g. However, in this study, Young modulus values of amphibolite rocks with β follow both types of shape-anisotropy, “U-shape” and “decreased order-shaped”.

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按倾角分类的各种煤层的英文翻译

(2015-01-12)

根据倾角,中国将煤层分为近水平煤层缓倾斜煤层、倾斜煤层以及急倾斜(In China, coal seams are divided in accordance with thedegree of their inclinationand called thealmost flat seam, thegently inclined seam, theinclined seamand thesteeply inclined seam)。依据采矿设计手册,倾角<8°为近水平煤层,8 – 25°为缓倾斜煤层,25 – 45°为倾斜煤层,而急倾斜煤层是指倾角大于45°的煤层(steeply inclined coal seam - said of coal seam with a dip of from 45 to 60°)。下面是按倾角分类的各种煤层的英文翻译:

近水平煤层almost flat coal seam

缓倾斜煤层 gently inclined coal seam

倾斜煤层 inclined coal seam

急倾斜煤层steeply inclined coal seam或steeply dipping coal seam

有些学者还把“急倾斜煤层”翻译成steep coal seam,highly dipped coal seamhighly-pitched coal seam,等等。笔者认为,最地道的翻译应为steeply inclined coal seamsteeply dipping coal seam

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Acknowledgements(致谢)的写作

(2015-01-05)

一篇学术论文的公开发表或一部学术著作的出版除作者本人辛勤耕耘之外,还离不开同伴或导师的帮助以及各种项目基金的支助,为研究项目(论文)提供可靠数据和资料的客户、政府有关部门、图书馆以及实验室工程技术人员也功不可没,作者家人(亲人)的理解与支持也不要忘记。所以,一般在论文(著作)的后面要附上Acknowledgements之语,以表示作者的致谢之意。

国内学者要在美英顶级学术期刊上发表论文,一般遇到的最大难题很可能就是“语言”问题 – 论文电邮到编辑部后,有些作者会收到一条回复,要求作者“perfect”语言,这就需要有经验的专业人士对论文进行耐心细致的“modification”或“revision”。笔者在2014年为11位学者的英文论文进行了文字润色工作,其中2篇分别用了2个小时和3个小时就修改完了,而其余的9篇论文修改用时普遍较长,一般须逐字逐句的改,每篇用时在4至18个小时!

下面是9则Acknowledgements(致谢,鸣谢)之范例,供读者参考。

范例1:

The authors thank Alex Blumenfeld and Richard Williams for assistance with NMR spectroscopy, and Noriko Yamaguchi for sending allophane, imogolite, and pumice samples from Dr Hiradate’s collection. Two anonymous reviewers provided helpful and constructive comments that improved the manuscript substantially. An Idaho Space Grant Consortium Research Initiation Grant provided funding for this work. Portions of this research were carried out at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, a Directorate of SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and an Office of Science User Facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science by Stanford University.

范例2:

The authors would like to thank the staff and postgraduate students at UPC, Barcelona for their assistance in carrying out the microstructural study (with special thanks to Ms. Analice Lima). In particular, the authors would like to thank Dr. Ana Maria Fernandez Diaz from the CIEMAT Laboratory, Madrid, Spain for their carrying out the X-ray diffraction investigation. The support of Dr. Ria Soemitro and Prof. Mark Dyer during the initial stages of this research is also appreciated. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Carnegie Trust for the University of Scotland, Bellahouston Traveling Scholarship, the Research Enhancement Group at the University of Strathclyde (There were no specific numbers for these grants. They were small grants to cover travel expenses and small pieces of equipment and consumables) and the EC (contact number MIF1-CT-2006-040375).

范例3:

The authors would like to thank Make Architects for contribution of images and background information regarding the architectural concept; David Littlefield for the architectural description; Wohr Parking Systems for the car park images; and Birmingham Development Company for site progress photographs. The key members of the project team were: client – Birmingham Development Company; architects – Make Architects; civil structural engineering – Buro Happold; building services engineering – Hoare Lea; main contractor – BuildAbility Ltd; and concrete frame contractor – O’Donnell Developments.

范例4:

The authors would like to acknowledge the support of the client project team and the collaboration effort of the wider project team, which included Roadbridge Ltd, BAM/W&F joint venture, Veolia Water Ireland, Shevlin Engineering Ltd, Tom Philips Associates, AGEC Ltd(Ireland), Ecological Advisory & Consultancy Services, Hydro-Environmental Services and Ordnance Survey Ireland.

范例5:

We thank ONDRAF-NIRAS and SCK-CEN for supporting the project and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft for funding the BIB-cryo-SEM instrument (Project UR 64/9-2). We are also grateful to Uwe Wollengurg (GIA at RWTH University) for his help with maintenance and technical aspects of SEM.

范例6:

This research was support by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41272344), the National Basic Research 973 Program of China (Grant No. 2014GB046905 and 2013GB036003) and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China (Grant No. BK2012568). We also would like to express our sincere gratitude to the editor Garranza-Torres C and five anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments, which have greatly improved this paper.

范例7:

This work was support by the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF) Mid-career Research Program grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (No.NRF-2013R1A2A2A01005430), and by Dr. H.J. Kweon and the graduate students at Dong-A University, Busan, who provide valuable assistance with the laboratory and field tests.

范例8:

The assistance of CSIRO Energy Technology, especially Dr. David French, for the provision of coal samples to assist the calibration process is gratefully acknowledged. Thanks are also expressed to Ian Croudace of the National Oceanography Center, Southampton, and to an anonymous reviewer, for the constructive comments on the manuscript.

范例9(学术著作编辑的致谢):

The editors gratefully acknowledge the splendid and willing cooperation of the authors of various chapters of the book – this is indeed a significant contribution to their profession and the coal industry. One look at this list of names shows that each chapter was written by an expert in his field. In some instances, the authors used the help of members of their staff, and this assistance by unnamed persons is also appreciated.

Although no specific credit is given to those individuals, companies, coal magazines, state mining departments, the US Bureau of Mines, and associations that furnished photographs and diagrams, their help is acknowledged.

And we must not forget the precedent set 30 years ago by the Kentucky coal companies, associations, organizations, and individuals who backed the Mayo State Vocational School and the Kentucky Mining Institute in producing the earlier predecessor volume.

Special appreciation is due Marianne Snedeker, SME-AIME, and her staff for shepherding the project through the production stages.

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煤层气·页岩气主要专业术语(词汇)及其用法

(2014-12-22)

在学科服务工作中,当谈及英文论文写作时,我常建议作者平时多看多写 -- 在写作之前,尽量多看一些英美学者撰写的相关论文,从中汲取有用的“词汇”、“句型”、“句子”等;在写作时,要尽可能突破汉语文化的“思维模式”,以英美英语文化“思维”来表述所要传递的思想(信息)。例如,在 “The main objective of landslide hazard modeling is to predict areasprone to landslides either spatially or temporally”这句话中,英国学者用“prone to landslides either spatially or temporally”来“修饰”“areas”。

今年11月中旬为我校一作者修改有关煤层气方面的英文论文之前,我看了好几篇英美学者的相关文章。在阅读的过程中,还作了笔记,记下了出现频次较高的术语(词汇)以及例句(用法)。今日将其整理后发表在此栏目,供撰写相关主题英文论文的作者参考。

adsorbates e.g. These authors found that the dimensional changes in coals were negligible after evacuation of the adsorbates from their experimental apparatus and, thus, swelling appeared to be largely reversible under laboratory conditions.

★adsorption e.g. In addition, adsorption samples were taken after the coal in the canisters was desorbed over many weeks.

★adsorption capacity

★adsorption isotherm e.g. There are no standards for adsorption isotherm analyses; The adsorption isotherms were determined volumetrically using a regulated gas supply system that delivers a constant gas pressure at pre-defined settings up to 4300 kPa methane.

★adsorption isotherm model e.g. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm model was used to define the isotherm curve at the test temperature and pressure.

★adsorption isotherm parameters

★adsorption properties

★adsorption-induced expansion of coal

★adsorption-induced swelling of coals

★affinity chromatography separation e.g. Affinity CS is important at the later life of a reservoir when reservoir pressure declines to below the critical sorption pressure.

★ash yield value

★backpressure

★basinal burial processes e.g. In contrast, the CBM reservoirs in the areas surrounding Wells-B and -C probably were influenced only through "normal" basinal burial processes.

★biogenic methane e.g. These data indicate methane generation by microbial CO2reduction with minor amounts of thermogenic methane contribution to the coal seam gas, and support the overwhelming contribution of biogenic methane to the Seelyville coal gas produced in this field, as in other coal seams in Indiana.

★boiling point

★borehole configurations

★butane 丁烷

★calorific value

★canister desorption tests

★Carbondale Group e.g. The formations of the Carbondale Group contain prominent coal seams of economic value for mining and CBM production in Indiana.

★CBM e.g. As described above, most CBM plays are likely to follow "simple" burial/maturation trend.

★characterization experiments

★chemical de-volatilization e.g. Rank increases through a process of chemical de-volatilization that involves the thermokinetic generation of large volumes of methane (Hunt, 1979);Methane derived from the chemical de-volatilization of coal is termed thermogenic.

★chromatography separation e.g. … a form of chromatography separation (CS) occurs in the reservoir. CS can also occur as part of other reservoir engineering problems such as chemical flood, tracer injection, gas flooding, and sour acid gas injection; The issue of CS is sensible for the systems where the diameters of the pores are small and their lengths are large, i.e., pores in shale. The CS process occurs mainly in shale matrix, e.g., network of nanopores.

★cleat system of the coal

★CO2-induced coal swelling

★coal e.g. Of the major fossil fuels, coal, oil, and natural gas, it is coal that is the most carbon intensive.

★coal and gas shale rock

★coal attributes

★coal bed e.g. Coal beds are composed almost entirely of organic material and are primarily classified by their level of maturation (or "rank"); Similistically, in any sedimentary basin, the rank of coal beds will follow Hilt's Law, that is, the deeper the coal bed, the higher the rank (Thomas, 2007).

★coal bed reservoir

★coal composition

★coal dust management

★coal gas e.g. These data indicate methane generation by microbial CO2reduction with minor amounts of thermogenic methane contribution to the coal seam gas, and support the overwhelming contribution of biogenic methane to the Seelyville coal gas produced in this field, as in other coal seams in Indiana

★coal geometry

★coal macromolecule

★coal matrix

★coal matrix shrinkage functions

★coal maturity

★coal mine gas explosion risk control and procedures

★coal mine methane (CMM)

★coal mining safety e.g. The objective of the document was to promote coal mining safety and to promote its use for energy production and for greenhouse gas reduction.

★coal parameters

★coal permeability

★coal pressure

★coal properties

★coal reservoir

★coal reservoir volumetrics and deliverability e.g. After completing necessary input parameters related to coal reservoir volumetrics and deliverability at the well locations, history matching exercise was initiated.

★coal resources

★coal samples e.g. Coal samples were crushed to a nominal top size of - 212um and approximately 100 g was placed into a high pressure adsorption canister and evacuated for 1 h.

★coal seam degasification e.g. Coal seam degasification is a means to recover energy from the methane gas retained in coal; coal seam gas production, or degasification, can be achieved prior-to- (CBM),during-, or in post-mining phases (CMM) using vertical or horizontal wellbores, depending on the geological conditions and properties of the coal.

★coal seam gas

★coal seam pressures

★coal seam reservoir model e.g. Most of the reservoir and coal-related properties required by the coal seam reservoir model were generated using geostatistics, as described in the previous section.

★coal seams e.g. The Balipapan Formation (Miocene age) in Sangatta, East Kalimantan is thick (〉1500 m) containing abundant coal seams that range in thickness from less than a meter to over 5 m; coal seams are distributed throughout the section and may represent 5 to 7% of the total formation thickness.

★coal swelling e.g. They found that CO2could swell coals ranging from about 0.36% to 1.31% volumetrically, whereas a non-adsorbed gas such as helium produced negligible dimension changes to the coal samples; Several attempts have been made to quantify the relationship between gas adsorption and the swelling of coals.

★coal-bearing strata

★coalbed methane

★coalbed methane (CBM) extraction e.g. Initially, coalbed methane (CBM) extraction was targeted at higher rank coals (bituminous and greater) because of the generally higher gas content and pressures.

★coalbed methane basins

★coalbed methane reservoir

★coalbed reserviors

★coal-rock dusts

★coals and gas shale rocks e.g. Coals and gas shale rocks are structural and chemical heterogeneous porous materials with porosity and PSDs varying throughout.

★coal's in-situ conditions

★combustion furnace

★compositional analyses e.g. Compositional analyses of the produced gas from the Seelyville Coal, which can be considered as "dry" gas with an average C2+ concentration of only 0.03.

★compositional variations (of the produced gas in shale gas wells) e.g. Compositional variations in produced gas arise from the differences in physical and chemical properties of the gas components. Important physical properties include molecular size and geometry, while important chemical properties include sorption affinity of the gas components.

★compressibility factor

★core holes e.g. Three core holes were drilled in late 2009 and early 2010 near the township of Sangatta in the Kutai regency of the Province Kalimantan Iimur for the purpose of gas and petrophysical testing.

★cumulative frequency e.g. The distinction is made between cumulative frequency and cumulative thickness because the former gives an indication of the number and types of coal seams whereas the latter informs where in that thickness range most of the reservoir lies.

★cumulative thickness

★depositional development

★desorption e.g. In addition, adsorption samples were taken after the coal in the canisters was desorbed over many weeks; low rank coals may lose moisture during the desorption process resulting in unreliable estimates in maximum gas holding capacity; Briefly, the canisters were desorbed every 15 min for the first nine hours, and then every 30 min after that until the total gas desorbed was less than 10 cc, then the time was doubled; Canisters were desorbed between 10 and 20 days before being decommissioned.

★de-stressed zone

★detrital sediment

★diffusive gas flow

★diffusive gas flux

★diffusive mass fluxes

★drill hole

★drilling infill well

★dust explosion e.g. However, what may start as a small-scale methane explosion can propagate as a dust explosion violently in a large area.

★dynamic delta complex

★elemental analyses

★equilibrium moist coal samples

★ethane 乙烷

★experimental apparatus e.g. The experimental apparatus was also maintained at a fixed temperature of 35 ℃ (isothermal) with a high precision temperature controller to +/-0.1 ℃ accuracy.

★experimental gas e.g. A known volume of the experimental gas (CH4or CO2)was injected into the sample cell.

★explosive limits

★flow behavior e.g. The model captures the flow behavior in nanopores encountered in shale gas reservoirs.

★formation e.g. The coals are numerous, with net coal thicknesses in the formation sometimes reaching over 100 m; however, individual coal beds in Balikpapan Formation are usually less than five meters in thickness, with the majority of beds being less than 1 m.

★functional groups e.g. More complex molecular models will be investigated to model the real structure of coal and gas shale rocks considering the vacancies and functional groups of the pore surfaces.

★gas e.g. The gas content of the Seelyville Coal in Indiana ranges from less than 0.5m3/t to ~5.7m3/t and it has been estimated that this coal potentially contains 0.03 trillion m3 of gas.

★gas adsorption

★gas adsorption and transport e.g. We believe that special issue will provide a foundation from which future studies will be carried out to further our understanding of gas adsorption and transport in the chemically heterogenous mciro and mesopores of gas shales.

★gas analyese e.g. Prior to and after sample analyese a gas mixture of known isotopic value was injected to check the performance of the system, no sample is injected unless these are within specification.

★gas and water production rates e.g. During this production duration, gas and water production rates, flowing line pressures, and the pressure differential between the wellhead and line were continuously monitored as daily data.

★gas and water relative permeability

★gas behavior

★gas capacity

★gas capture and utilization

★gas components

★gas composition e.g. Therefore, variation of gas composition of the producing gas gives us valuable information about gas transport in the matrix.

★gas content e.g. Measured gas contents range from ﹤1 to 13 m3/t (as reserved basis); Measured gas content is strongly correlated with rank.

★gas control

★gas depletion

★gas diffusion coefficient

★gas drainage

★gas emission zone e.g. The later discussions are related to formation of gas emission zone of longwall mine and gas release from various sources within that zone.

★gas emissions e.g. …about the occurrence, release and prediction of gas emissions in coal mines.

★gas flow e.g. There are many models to describe gas flow in tight and ultratight porous media; Numerous investigations have been done on gas flow in porous media, and recent interest in unconventional gas reservoirs has led to studies focused on gas flow in low-permeability media.

★gas holding capacity e.g. Overall, there is greater gas holding capacity with increase in rank and depth; The shallowest sample has a maximum methane gas holding capacity of 2.72m3/t (ar, at 6 MPa) while the highest holding capacity is at a depth of 681 m and is 11.03 m3(ar, at MPa).

★gas isotopes

★gas law e.g. According to the gas law, higher temperatures should decrease gas holding capacity, although this not always observed in some low rank coals.

★gas layering phenomenon

★gas management

★gas mixture

★gas molecular diffusion coefficient

★gas molecules

★gas occurrence

★gas permeability e.g. Due to the dynamic changes in the coal and the redistribution of the fluids, maximum effective gas permeability increased to 56 and the average of all grid values increased to ~16 md. Owing to the importance of effective permeability in multi-phase flow compared to absolute permeability, the increase in effective permeability can be considered more important compared to the increase solely in absolute permeability due to matrix shrinkage.

★gas phase

★gas recovery

★gas reservoir

★gas samples

★gas saturation e.g. It is beyond the scope of this paper to discuss gas saturation but because of its importance a brief mention is warranted.

★gas shales e.g. Due to the size of the pores and their potential limited connectivity, gas shales exhibit extremely low permeabilities, i.e., on the order of nanoDarcies.

★gas slip effect

★gas species separation

★gas transport

★gas transport mechanisms

★gas viscosity

★gas-in-place values

★gassy areas e.g. …to separate working areas from gassy areas, since seals are the only barrier between these two sections in case of a methane explosion in the gob.

★geostatistical simulation and co-simulation methods

★geothermal gradient e.g. All three data points form a consistent line and indicate a geothermal gradient of at least 50℃/km.

★gob gas ventholes

★heat flow influence e.g. None of the individual parameter variations would conclusively indicate higher heat flow influence on the CBM reservoir in the Sangatta area.

★heterogeneous

★high-risk areas e.g. They also identify high-risk areas of a mine such as poorly ventilated areas, gob behind shields, and poorly designed areas of the drainage and in-mine gas transport system where a large amount of air is withdrawn.

★initial conditions

★initial properties

★injection and sequestration

★intermolecular forces

★intrinsic permeability e.g. The equation accurately predicts the intrinsic permeability from gas flow data.

★isotherm curve

★isotopic analysis

★Langmuir adsorption model

★liquid density

★low permeability porous media

★maceral analysis e.g. Maceral analysis indicates that all samples are vitrinite/huminite rich (80-94%, mineral matter free[mmf]).

★marine facies

★matrix block size Important reservoir parameters such as permeability, matrix block size, porosity, and contribution of the sorbed gas to gas production may be subject to history-matching analysis and therefore valuable information may be obtained by applying the results of this research.

★matrix shrinkage functions

★matrix swelling coefficient

★mean free path (the mean free path is comparable to the average pore throats)

★mesopore volumes e.g. It was further shown that Seelyville coals that had the largest specific surface area and largest mesopore volumes occurred at the shallowest depths, and the mineral-matter content influenced both specific surface area as well as mesopore and micropore volumes.

★methane in-place volume

★methane adsorption isotherm

★methane explosion

★methane generation e.g. This chapter opens with a brief discussion of methane generation while peat material is going through different coalification processes.

★methane management

★methane recovery

★methane storage capacities

★methane utilization

★methane 甲烷 e.g. Methane in coal beds has historically been regarded as a hazard in coal mining; Although the hazard very much remains, methane has also been demonstrated to have large commercial value.

★micro and mesoporous structures

★micropore volumes

★mine ventilation e.g. They discuss key design concepts, monitoring, various types of ventilation schemes practiced in different countries - due to properties of coals or regulations - and limitations to ventilation for diluting methane effectively, such as excessive gas, humidity, air flow volume and pressure relationship.

★moisture content e.g. Moisture content decreases significantly with depth in some boreholes.

★moisture values e.g. Moisture values are around 20% (adb) at about 250m and decrease to about 10% (adb) towards the bottom of the well (~600 m).

★molar density

★molar mass

★mole fraction e.g. The simulation results confirm variations in the mole fraction of the produced gas components with time.

★molecular pore-network model

★multi-phase flow

★nanoporous media

★non-renewable fuel

★normalized producing concentration

★numerical reservoir

★octane 辛烷

★organic materials e.g. Organic materials are especially prone to physico-chemical changes with even the slightest increase in burial depth; the degree, rate and magnitude of change in the maturation of organic materials are mostly determined by temperature and time (Taylor et al.,1998).

★organic matter

★organic-rich shales

★permeability e.g. Permeability of coals increases as a result of gas desorption and pressure depletion during production; During this exercise, recorded bottom-hole pressure were honored and gas and water production rates were estimated by automatically varying parameters such as absolute permeability, porosity, drainage area, wellbore skin, etc; Absolute permeability for fractures required values that represent easting (X), northing (Y), and vertical (Z) directions.

★permeability model

★permeability test

★phase behavior

★point-wise e.g. For co-simulations, first primary variables were selected using a correlation analysis between normal scores of all possible coal reservoir parameters of fluid flow and storage and point-wise coal parameters.

★pore e.g. Pores in coal vary in size from microns to angstroms in dimension and cleat-features.

★pore matrices e.g. Determining the transport of CO2within the model systems can be used to understand the complex pore matrices of coal and gas shale that are important to determining their potential for CO2storage.

★pore networks

★pore surface chemistry

★pore walls e.g. Gas molecules constantly collide with each other and with pore walls.

★pore-network connectivity

★porosity

★porous medium

★porous structure e.g.Molecular simulation studies were applied to model the porous structure of thelignite and gas shale samples.

★propane 丙烷

★proximate analysis e.g. A total of 111 samples were analyzed for proximate analysis (moisture, ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon by difference).

★pseudo-steady state

★reference compounds

★reference materials

★relative permeability functions e.g. In this study, Corey relative permeability functions were used. Thus, the parameters of gas and water relative permeability functions, such as the exponent of the water relative permeability curve (Nw), the exponent of the gas relative permeability curve (Ng), initial water saturation (Swi), and connate water saturation (Swc) were also changed between runs to adjust the shape of production curves to obtain a successful match.

re-oxidation

★reservoir behavior

★reservoir model

★reservoir simulation

★reservoir attributes e.g. There are few documented cases of the effect of localized high heat flow on CBM reservoir attributes.

★reservoir geometry

★reservoir parameters e.g. Important reservoir parameters such as permeability, matrix block size, porosity, and contribution of the sorbed gas to gas production may be subject to history-matching analysis and therefore valuable information may be obtained by applying the results of this research.

★reservoir permeability e.g. Average reservoir pressure drops faster for the cases with higher reservoir permeability; This figure shows that C1 produces faster in more permeable reservoirs.

★reservoir temperature e.g. All isotherms were determined at reservoir temperature.

★sample cell e.g. As gas in the sample cell is adsorbed, there is a corresponding decrease in pressure that is proportional to the volume adsorbed.

★★samples e.g. These samples, upon arrival at the surface, were immediately wrapped in cling wrap, triple bagged in thick plastic bags, sealed and refrigerated (between 4-10℃) to prevent any loss of water. The samples were also analyzed for vitrinite reflectance, maceral composition and elemental (ultimate) analysis.

★sediment

★sedimentary basin e.g. Similistically, in any sedimentary basin, the rank of coal beds will follow Hilt's Law, that is, the deeper the coal bed, the higher the rank (Thomas, 2007).

★sedimentary geology

★sequestration

★shale formations

★shale gas e.g. Other complexities of gas production in shale include gas sorption and diffusion processes. Thanks to advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, we have the ability to produce economically from these reservoirs. However, many challenges still lie ahead. These challenges include production data analysis and determination of effective reservoir permeability and matrix block size after hydraulic fracturing.

★shale gas recovery e.g. The work of Fathi et al. investigates the effect of gas adsorption and transport on CO2 injectivity for enhanced shale gas recovery.

★shale gas reservoir development

★shale gas reservoirs e.g. Shale gas reservoirs in the United States are vast and gas from these reservoirs is already contributing to U.S. fossil energy production.

★shale gas wells

★shale matrix e.g. The CS process occurs mainly in shale matrix, e.g., network of nanopores; A numerical model such as the one presented in this paper can be used to analyze producing gas composition variation to determine the average length of shale matrix or apparent permeability of the matrix.

★shale reservoirs e.g. Shale reservoirs are categorized as unconventional reservoirs because they are extremely tight, with pores in the range of nanometers and permeabilities in the range of nanodarcys.

★shale wells

★slip effects e.g. At typical reservoir pressures in conventional reservoirs, the apparent permeability is very close to the absolute permeability, and the slippage effect is negligible.

★slip flow

★slippage effect

★spatial variability

★★spatiotemporal modeling e.g. An extensive literature review related to application of different techniques to spatiotemporal modeling of coal resources is given in volume 112 of the International Journal of Coal Geology.

★specific emissions

★specific surface area e.g. It was further shown that Seelyville coals that had the largest specific surface area and largest mesopore volumes occurred at the shallowest depths, and the mineral-matter content influenced both specific surface area as well as mesopore and micropore volumes.

★split mode

★stratigraphic sample

★subsidence

★surrounding strata

★sustainable energy

★swelling behavior

★tectonic and hydrothermal activity

★tectonic development

★Tertiary age e.g. Sumatra and Kalimantan account for 99% of that coal production, all from Tertiary age coal seams.

★Tertiary basins e.g. The Tertiary basis in these two regions have an estimated resource in excess of 105 billion tons.

★thermogenic e.g. Methane derived from the chemical de-volatilization of coal is termed thermogenic.

★tight formations e.g. For example, desorption, a process that is dominant in CBM, also occurs in shale, and shale gas reservoirs can be described as tight formations, much like "tight gas" reservoirs.

★tight gas

★tight gas reservoirs

★tortuosity e.g. For a given permeability, the larger the tortuosity, the smaller the normalized producing more fraction of methane at early time.

★transport properties

★vitrinite reflectance e.g. The trends in virtrinite reflectance have correlations to other coal properties already discussed.

★volumetric strain

★water saturation

★water table level e.g. The other assumption is that the water table level in all wells is within 5-10 m of the ground level.

★wellbore

★wellbore configuration

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Rate的灵活应用

(2014-12-15)

Rate在论文中出现的频次也比较高,其常指“速度”(a quantity measured with respect to another measured quantity, e.g. a rate of speed of 60 km an hour),“比率”(a measure of a part with respect to a whole; a proportion, e.g. the mortality rate, a tax rate)等,例如,“Palagonite at Surtsey grew at a rate of 2.8 um/y at 100°C and even at this faster growth rate, approximately 1800 y would be required for a 1 cm crack to fill with palagonite.”

在表示“比率”时,rate所涉及的两个items一般分别是部分和整体,也就是说,这里的rate是部分与整体的“比率”,例如,“According to the sixth national population census conducted on 1 November 2010, China's population growth rate was only 0.47%, ranking 159th in the world. ”

从下面几则例句我们可看出rate在各种实际场合的灵活应用。

★This result is reasonably consistent with the growth rates measured by Decarreau et al. (1987)

★This movement was subsequently recovered and the comparison is recovered also until January 2008, where the measured displacement rate increased, whereas the calculated rate remains constant.

★Assuming this growth rate can be extrapolated meaningfully,…..

★The present study couples experimental and analytical data with field observations in an attempt to constrain the rate and temperature of formation of naturally occurring nontronites from Columbia River Basalt flows.

★A comparison of experimental and field timescales with other estimates of nontronite growth rates suggests that natural nontronite crystallization in the region must have occurred at ambient, near-surface temperatures over timescales of up to millions of years.

★Jakobsson and Moore (1986) found that at 100°C palagonite formed a rim on basaltic glass at a rate of 2.8 um/y, and that this rate doubled with every 12°C increase in temperature. At temperatures>120°C, nontronite formed a rim on olivine crystals at a rate of 0.3 um/y; this rate doubled with every 8°C increase, but nontronite growth was not observed at lower temperatures. This growth rate is faster than the rates measured experimentally by Decarreau et al. (1987), but drops more rapidly with temperature.

★Comparisons of statistical methods previously used to model landslide hazards concluded that logistic regression results in the lowest rate of error.

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Using 之巧用

(2014-12-08)

在学科服务工作中,笔者似乎也与using结下了不解之缘 --- 几乎是天天见,因为每篇英文论文中总是少不了几个using,所以,using“身材”虽小,但在文章中发挥着非常重要作用。

例如,如果在“The mine extracted coal at a depth of approximately 350 m, where a longwall method was applied”中用上using,这个句子可改成“Coal was extracted using a longwall method at a depth of approximately 350 m或The mine was using a longwall method to extract coal at a depth of approximately 350 m”。 不难看出,含有using的句子更凝练了;同样,“All data used were converted from their original map projection into decimal degrees, using the Geospatial Data Abstraction Library software”比“All data used were converted from their original map projection into decimal degrees, which the Geospatial Data Abstraction Library software was adopted”更漂亮了。下面11则实例进一步彰显了using之巧用。

The failure envelopes of CO2-saturated coal were predicated using the proposed strength reduction model.

★Recent developments in instrumentation mean that the analysis of drill cores can be performed rapidly, at millimeter to sub-millimeter scales, using one of several automated, laboratory-based, core-scanning energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometer systems.

★A number of different coal samples were cross-analyzed in the companion study using a variety of techniques.

★Analysis of the site using limit equilibrium methods revealed that an influential factor in the future movement of the slip was the elevated pore water pressures observed along the failure plane.

★However, detailed analysis of the effect of rainfall patterns on the magnitude of pore pressures acting along the failure surface was not possible using these methods.

The aim of this paper is to describe how coupled hydro-mechanical modeling of the site, using local rainfall records, was able to shed light on the movement trends of this landslip.

★Using EXAFS and XANES spectroscopy, Baker et al. (2010) showed that this can be achieved for low-Fe natural soil clays.

★To test the hypothesis that Fe in the natural samples is a combination of substituted and surface-sorbed Fe, the XANES spectrum of natural allophane was analyzed using linear combination fitting (LCF).

★The spectrum was modeled as a linear combination using synthetic Fe-substituted 2:1 allophane, synthetic Fe-sorbed allophane, and ferrihydrite as possible components.

★Samples were analyzed using Fe K-edge X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XAFS).

★To study nontronite formation and properties, the mineral has been synthesized in the laboratory using various methods.

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Respectively的正确用法

(2014-12-01)

在帮助作者修改英文论文时,笔者有时会发现有些作者不能正确使用respectively(分别地;各自地;各个地) --- 有的将respectively放在句子的最前面,有的搁在句子的中间 --- 例如,有人把“这个水箱的长宽高分别是3米、2米、1米”译成“This water-container’s length, width, height is respectively 3m, 2m, 1m”,而正确的翻译应为“The length, width and height of this water-container are 3m, 2m and 1m, respectively”或者“The length, width and height of this water-container are 3, 2 and 1m, respectively”。

由此可看出,respectively一般是在句子的最后,而且在respectively的前面需要一个逗号“,”。另外,在“respectively”的句子里,一般有两个“and”--- 如果只有两个items,那么两者之间就直接用“and”连接即可;如果是三个或三个以上的items,最后一个item与前面紧邻的 item 之间要用“and”。下面10个例子均来自2014年英美学术期刊,从多个专业领域显示了respectively的实际用法。

Confining stress and injection pressure are 1.0MPa and 0.7MPa, respectively.

★Peak values of movement recorded in BH103, BH104 and BH105 between March and April 2009 were 42, 32 and 90 mm/a, respectively.

★Synthesis of ferric smectites from gels under reducing and oxidizing conditions, were investigated by Decarreau and Bonnin (1986) and Decarreau et al. (1987), respectively.

★Fig. 9 and 10 represent the rockfall trajectories and the distribution of the bounce height and kinetic energy for the each section, respectively.

★The most frequent values are obtained by 500 to 600 kJ, 12 to 15 m/s, 0.2 to 2 m and 45°to 65°, respectively.

★To be on the safe side, the capacity of the impact energy and the height of catchfence based on the group B are chosen to be minimum 600 kJ and 4 m high, respectively.

★Young’s modulus, E and yield stress, σof the steel post is assigned to 210 GPa and 235 MPa, respectively.

★The net barrier and cables shown in Figs. 13 and 14 are made of truss elements given by 8 mm and 16 mm of diameters, respectively.

★The total forces and the total deflection of the net barrier have a tendency to reduce with the higher friction coefficients ranging from 364 kN to 338 kN and from 6.1 m to 5.7 m, respectively.

★The impact height at the net barrier and the impact angle of the boulder are set to be 2.3 m from the ground surface and 37.5°from the horizontal, respectively to make the impact condition consistent with the in situ field test, TSB6.

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大学行政职务、各类学生以及教师职称的英文翻译

(2014-11-24)

大学行政职务、各类学生以及教师职称的英文翻译一般比较“恒定”,如校长是President, 副校长要翻译成Vice-President,而不是Associate President; 物理学教授是Professor of Physics,而物理学讲师要翻译成Lecturer on Physics,物理学助教需译成Assistantin Physics(或Preceptor in Physics)。所以,在英译大学行政职务、各类学生以及教师职称时,一定要“遵守”英语文化的“约定俗成”,切忌“望文生义”。下面是大学行政职务、各类学生以及教师职称的英文翻译,供参考。

校长 President

副校长 Vice-President

二级学院院长、教务处长 Dean

教职员工(教学人员) Faculty

教职员工(行政管理人员) Staff

校友(毕业生) Alumni

本科生 Undergraduate Student

研究生 Graduate student

硕士生/博士生 MD/PhD Student

博士后 Post-doc, Post-Doctoral Fellow

职称 Title

教授 Professor;物理学教授Professor of Physics

副教授 Associate Professor; 统计学副教授Associate Professor of Statistics

助理教授 Assistant Professor

高级讲师 Senior Lecturer; 统计学高级讲师Senior Lecturer on Statistics

讲师 Lecturer;物理学讲师Lecturer on Physics

助教 Teaching Assistant(或Preceptor);物理学助教Assistant in Physics(或Preceptor in Physics)

研究馆员ResearchLibrarian

副研究馆员 Associate Research Librarian

馆员 Librarian

助理馆员 Assistant Librarian

研究员 Research Fellow; 采矿学研究员Research Fellow in Mining Science

副研究员 Associate Research Fellow

助理研究员 Assistant Research Fellow

高级工程师 Senior Engineer

工程师 Engineer

助理工程师 Assistant Engineer

高级会计师 Senior Accountant

会计师 Accountant

助理会计师 Assistant Accountant

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有关“煤自燃”主要术语英文翻译及例句

(2014-11-17)

自燃是煤矿、煤场以及煤渣废物(垃圾)堆放场面临的一个大难题。国内外有关学者,特别是我校邓军教授团队在这方面做了大量的实验与研究,取得了突破性科研成果,已广泛应用于生产实际中。在最近学科服务工作中,笔者阅读了数篇有关“煤自燃”方面的英文文献,并对一些关键术语(语句)进行了收集整理与翻译,在这里愿与大家分享,望其对撰写相关主题英文论文的作者有一定的参考作用。尽管occur等不是专业术语,也收集在其中,将有关例句附后,因为笔者发现有些作者不能正确使用这些“常见”词汇。

★表面温度,地面温度 surface temperature

★参数 parameters 例如,Internationally, it has been established that spontaneous combustion leading to fire in a coal mine depends both on intrinsic and extrinsic parameters. The intrinsic parameters are mainly associated with the nature of the coal, i.e. its physico-chemical characteristics, petrographic analysis and mineral matter content. Extrinsic parameters are mainly site specific and are related to geological, mining methods and environmental conditions prevailing during extraction of coal.

★初始氧化 initial oxidation

★点火,燃烧 ignite, ignition 例如,When coal is exposed to oxygen, its temperature rises and generates heat and in turn promotes further oxidation, which can cause it to ignite suddenly.

★多元回归分析 multiple regression analysis

★二次氧化 second oxidation

★发生,出现 occur, occurance 例如,to prevent a spontaneous combustion from occurring; Once combustion occurs or comes close to igniting….

★反应 reaction 例如,The oxidation of coal causing spontaneous combustion is an exothermic reaction. Heat produced by this action, if not properly diluted, accelerates and speed up the reaction. Finally, it automatically leads to spontaneous combustion of coal.

★反应时间 reaction time

★放热氧化 exothermal oxidation 例如,Furthermore, coal exposed to the air leads to exothermal oxidation of the carbon.

★非易燃煤层 non-fiery coal seams

★风化煤 weathered coal

★过热煤 overheated coal

★火灾灾害 fire hazard 例如,fighting fire hazards

★交点温度 crossing point temperature 例如,It may be mentioned here that the lower is the crossing point temperature of coal, the higher is its susceptibility to spontaneous combustion.

★主焦煤 prime coking coal:

★炼焦煤 coking coal

★半焦煤 semi-coking coal

★非炼焦煤 non-coking coal

★煤层发火,煤层火灾 coal seam fire 例如,Coal seam fire can smolder underground for decades and possibly hundreds of years and have numerous social, economic, and ecological impacts around the world; The precise remote detection of coal seam fires is necessary prior to developing any strategies to remediate them.

★煤尘 coal dust 例如,As more coal dust rises into the air the chance of a spontaneous combustion rises.

★煤火,煤火灾 coal fires 例如,Just in People's Republic of China, approximately 750 coal fires were burning in 1997. Problems associated with coal fires include the destruction of energy resources, the ignition of forest fire, the subsidence of surface infrastructure including houses and building, and the formation of toxic fumes escaping from vents and contaminant plumes in the shallow groundwater.

★煤样 coal sample

★煤渣,煤矸石等含煤废物(垃圾) coal-waste 例如,Coal-waste typically contains appreciable amounts of coal from seams that are not economic to recover, and a variety of different host rocks, e.g., pyrite-bearing carbonaceous shales and sandstones. Organic matter (coal, wood and garbage) usually comprises 20-30% of the waste.

★煤渣,煤矸石等含煤废物(垃圾)场 coal-waste dump

★煤渣,煤矸石等含煤废物(垃圾)发火(火灾) coal-waste fire

★煤自燃倾向性 susceptibility of coal to spontaneous combustion

★潜在(可能的)自然 potential self combustion 例如,We have to look to a way uncover potential self combustion hazards before they happen.

★浅煤层发火,浅煤层火灾 shallow coal seam fire

★燃点 burning point 例如,A combination of the two methods based on the joint or combined inversion of the two dataset and use of attributes can be used to localize quite precisely the position of the burning point.

★热点 hot spot 例如,In the study, it managed to observe the evolution of self-heating areas, i.e., the appearance of hot spots, their migration and their disappearance were observed.

★热强度 heat intensity

★三次氧化 third oxidation

★特征温度 characteristic temperature

★危险,灾害 risk 例如,The technique helps prevent the risk of coal spontaneous combustion.

★位置,方位 position 例如,However, one of these geophysical methods can be used to diagnose with certainty the position of a coal seam fire.

★温度测点 temperature measuring point

★悬浮煤尘 airborne coal dust

★氧,氧气 oxygen 例如,to release oxygen out of the coal pile.

★氧化 oxidate, oxidation 例如,When coal is exposed to oxygen, its temperature rises and generates heat and in turn promotes further oxidation, which can cause it to ignite suddenly.

★氧化煤 oxidated coal 例如,The oxidated coal is prone to the spontaneous combustion.

★易燃煤层 fiery coal seams

★属性,特征 attribute 例如,In geophysics, an attribute is defined as a quality or characteristic inherent in or ascribed to a geological feature or process.

★自发热 spontaneous heating

★自发热区域(面积)self-heating areas, self-heated areas 例如,The NDSI is useful in specifying the exact location of self-heating areas.

★自然 spontaneous combustion 例如,Spontaneous heating or combustion is one of the crucial issues in coal mines; Spontaneous combustion leading to fire is a recurrent danger in coal mining industry of the world.

★自热,自发热 self-heating 例如,The many features that increase the susceptibility to self-heating include climate, coal rank, ash, surface areas exposed (particle size), mineral composites (especially pyrite), volatile matter, organic matter type (exinite, inertinite) and storage time. The layered structure of coal-waste dumps, their shape and their degree of compaction also play an important role in self-heating.

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十八届四中全会关键术语(语句)的英文翻译

(2014-11-10)

党的十八届四中全会(4th plenary session of 18th CPC Central Committee)明确提出了全面推进依法治国的总目标、重大任务。全会提出,全面推进依法治国,总目标是建设中国特色社会主义法治体系,建设社会主义法治国家。在全会公报中出现了不少新“术语(语句)”,有些还是第一次提出。下面是十八届四中全会部分关键术语(语句)的英文翻译,供读者参考。

中国共产党第十八届中央委员会第四次全体会议:4th plenary session of 18th CPC Central Committee

★建设社会主义法治国家:build a country under "the socialist rule of law"

★建设法治政府:build a law-abiding government

★巡回法庭:circuit courts, 例如: “最高人民法院设立巡回法庭:Supreme People's Court will set up circuit courts”.

★全面推进法治:comprehensively advance the rule of law

★跨行政区划人民法院:cross-administrative region courts, 例如: “探索设立跨行政区划人民法院和人民检察院,探索建立检察机关提起公益诉讼制度:the country will explore establishing cross-administrative region courts and procuratorates, and seek to allow prosecutors to file public interest litigation cases”.

★人权司法保障:protection of human rights in judicial procedures

★从符合条件的律师、法学专家中招录立法工作者、法官、检察官:recruit lawmakers, judges and prosecutors from qualified lawyers and law experts

★法治社会建设:building of a law-based society

★保证司法公正:ensure judicial justice

★确保党在中国特色社会主义法制建设中的领导地位:ensure the leadership of CPC in "the socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics".

★形成中国特色社会主义法制服务体系:form a system serving "the socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics"

★依法保障“一国两制”实践和推进祖国统一:guarantee the practice of "one country, two systems" and promote national reunification in line with laws

★提高司法公信力:improve judicial credibility

★加强队伍建设:improve team building

★提高司法体系的公信力:improve the credibility of judicial system

★完善中国特色社会主义法律体系:improve the socialist system of laws with Chinese characteristics

★政府重大决策合法性:legitimacy of major decision-making in governments

★重大决策终身责任追究制度:lifelong liability accounting system for major decisions

★依党规党纪管好自身:manage itself in line with Party rules and disciplines

人民当家作主的权力:people's rights as the master of the nation

政绩考核体系:performance appraisal system, 例如: “The effectiveness of implementing rule of law will be a significant index in judging the work of officials at various levels and will be added to their performance appraisal system”.

★推进依法执政:promote administration by law

★增强全民法律意识:promote public awareness of law

★增强全民法治观念:promote the public awareness of rule of law

★推进法制:promote the rule of law

★推进政府事务的透明度:promote transparency of government affairs

★建立领导干部干预司法活动、插手具体案件处理的记录、通报和责任追究制度:record officials who interfere in judicial cases and name them publicly to hold them accountable

★责任倒查机制:retrospective mechanism to hold people accountable for wrong decisions

★依法治国:rule the country in line with the law

★保障司法公正:safeguard judicial justice

★党在推进法制中的领导:CPC's leadership in pushing forward rule of law

★加快法制政府建设:speed up the building of a law-abiding government

★依法管理国家和社会事务:state and social affairs be handled in line with law

★加强宪法实施:strengthen the implementation of the Constitution

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个人简介(Biography)的翻译

(2014-11-03)

在投寄论文时,有些刊物要求作者在论文后面附上“个人简介”(biography),内容包含何时何校何专业毕业,获得何学位,以及主要工作经历(学术活动)等。下面是7个“个人简介”(biography)范例,供读者参考。

范例1:

Maryam Kolahdoozanreceived her MSc of applied science, specializing in concrete materials, from Ryerson University, Toronto, ON, Canada. Her areas of research include sustainable alternatives for producing unshrinkable fill and deterioration mechanism of concrete exposed to internal sulfate attack and method for mitigation.

范例2:

Douglas F. CRICKNER was born at McAlpin, a southern West Virginia coal camp, and had his first experience in coal mining at age 18 at the McAplin mine where for three successive summers he was employed on conveyor sections in 34-in. coal to drag pans and supplies, hang canvas, etc. He graduated from Virginia Polytechnic Institute with a degree in mining engineering in 1941. Following this, he served with Koppers Coal Co. and The New River Co. as mining engineer and assistant mine foreman. In 1946, he was employed by his present company, Pocahontas Land Corp., which he has served as mine inspector, chief engineer, general manager, and currently as vice president. During one four-year period he was transferred to an associated company, Norfolk & Western Railway Co., as superintendent of mines at its Pond Greek Colliers in Pike County, KY. He has taken an active part in a number of engineering and coal institutes. He is a past chairman of The Society of Mining Engineers of AIME Coal Division and is currently serving as a director of SME and vice president-AIME Easter Region.

范例3:

M. E. HOPKINS received his education in geology from the University of Arkansas, then earned his Ph.D. at the University of Illinois in 1957. He served in the Army Air Corps in 1946-47. In 1951, he joined the Coal Section of Illinois State Geological Survey as a part-time research assistant. In 1955, he joined the faculty of the Department of Geology at the University of Tulsa but in 1963 returned to the Illinois Survey, becoming head of the Coal Section in 1968 where he served until 1975. He was vice president of Harry Williamson, Inc., Benton, IL, and is now director of geology, Peabody Coal Co., St. Louis, MO.

范例4:

H. L. WASHBURN received a BS and MS in mining engineering from the University of Kentucky. His first job was with the Research and Development Division, Consolidation Coal Co. in Pittsburgh, PA, where he worked for three years on a variety of projects including the development of pipeline transportation of coal. He was transferred to Fairmont, WV, as manager of preparation, and subsequently became chief engineer of the Mountainer Division of Consolidation Coal Co. His next assignment was a three-year period with Clinchfield Coal Co. as director of preparation, which involved the actual management of all the plants of Clinchfield. He went to North American Coal Corp. in 1966 as assistant vice president and was later promoted to vice president-engineering and senior vice president-operations, his present position.

范例5:

Jack A. SIMON first worked on coal geology for the Illinois State Geological Survey as a student in 1937. After serving in the Army Air Corps during World War II, he returned to the Survey on a full-time basis. He was head of the Coal Section, 1953-1967, after which he became head of the Geological Group and principal geologist. Since 1974 he has been chief of the Illinois State Geological Survey. Professional activities have included not only coal geology but, in recent years, environmental problems associated with mining transportation and use of fossil fuels.

范例6:

Lu Wang has been a Preceptor in the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology since 2013. She is involved in teaching several courses at Harvard including Physical Sciences 10 and 11, and Chemistry 301hf -- a teaching practicum course for chemistry graduate students. Before becoming a Preceptor, she held a two-year postdoctoral appointment at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In addition to her research on two-dimensional nanobiosensors, she also participated in developing and teaching a college chemistry curriculum in the founding year of Singapore University of Technology and Design, which is established in collaboration with MIT. Dr. Wang received her Ph.D. in Chemistry from Harvard University in 2011, where she worked in Professor Charles Lieber‘s group to develop label-free silicon nanowire field-effect biosensors. She received her B.S. in Chemistry from Peking University in 2006.

范例7(注重学术方面):

Navin Khaneja(Gordon McKay Professor of Electrical Engineering) is broadly interested in the area of mathematical control theory, signals and systems. His current research lies at the interface of control and information theory and physics. He is working on developing geometric techniques for optimal control of quantum mechanical phenomenon.

The work has proven promising for optimal pulse sequences in high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. These optimal pulse sequences minimize the effects of decoherence and maximize the sensitivity of NMR experiments. Optimal pulse design can lead to significant reduction of time required for structural analysis of proteins. The work also has immediate applications to the areas of quantum information and computing.

Professor Khaneja is also very interested in the areas of robotics, computer vision, statistical inference and image understanding. His current work in the area of robotics involves design of feedback controllers for stabilization of nonholonomic control systems with applications to locomotion systems.

His recent work in Medical Imaging and Human Brain Mapping develops rich class of probabilistic models to capture inherent variability present in the anatomies and involves design of computationally efficient Bayesian inference algorithms for extracting anatomical information from noisy data collected through various imaging modalities.

(Education: 1.B.Tech., 1994, Electrical Engineering, IIT, Kanpur; 2.M.A./M.S., 1996, Mathematics/Electrical Engineering, Washington University; 3.S.M., 1999, Applied Mathematics, Harvard University; 4.Ph.D., 2000, Applied Mathematics, Harvard University)

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关于“型”的译法

(2014-10-27)

“型”在论文或一般文章中出现的频次也比较高,尽管与其对应的英文单词有type, model等,但在实际翻译中“型”的英文表示手段可以说是“千奇百怪”--- 有时“型”要译出来,有时“型”在译文中必须“消失”,这要视具体情况和上下文来定。

例如,把“节约型大学”译成“energy-saving-type university”是不恰当的,正确的翻译应为resource-conserving university,在这里“type”必须“消失”;

而在“这种类型的产品具有良好的性能”-- This type of product is of a good performance – 中,“型”要译出来;

在“这种型号的提升机广泛用于煤矿” – This model of hoist is widely applied in coal mine – 中,“型”也要译出来。

在下面的几个范例中,“型”在英文中也“消失”了:

节约型社会 resource-conserving society

节约型校园 resource-conserving campus

学习型社会 learning society

学习型政党 learning Party

学习型图书馆 learning library

管理型政府 managing government

服务型政府 serving government

由此可看出,在翻译“型”时,一定要灵活机动,该译出的一定要译出,不该“译出”的必须“消失”,切记“望文生义”。

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“望文生义”是翻译之大忌

2014-10-20

在一个偶然的机会与朋友聊天谈到翻译时,这位朋友很得意地流露,“得益于机器翻译软件,现在的翻译工作比以前容易多了“。对这种说法,我持不同看法。

事实上,随着网上各种机器翻译软件的纷纷出笼,有些人似乎找到了翻译之“法宝” --- 有些作者将中文论文题目、摘要以及关键词直接粘贴到网上机器翻译软件的翻译框内,不用“吹灰之力”就被翻译成“英文”,然后将其再粘贴到论文的后面,而且是“一词不变”。说难听一点,这简直是对翻译的亵渎!

在我所从事的学报英文编辑(兼职)工作过程中,每期总会遇到一到两篇机器翻译的“杰作”。例如,我曾两次碰到同一作者将工程上的“可靠性”翻译成“dependent sex”,毫无你问,这肯定是机器翻译的,正确的译文应为reliability;还有一作者将“方家村地质构造”翻译成“Square Family Village Geological Structure”,真令人啼笑皆非,而正确的译文应为geological structure of Fangjia (Fang-family) village。

就在昨天我遇到有一作者将“基于静态故障树的煤矿提升机系统故障诊断”翻译成了“Based on static fault tree system of coal mine hoist fault diagnosis”,正确的译文应为Coal mine hoist system fault diagnosis based on static fault tree。

如果留意的话,我们每天都会看到望文生义的翻译“范例”。细心的人会发现,“赛格电脑城”最初被译成“Saga Computer City”,后来更正为“Saga IT Mall”;还有“家具城”被译成“Furniture City”; 世纪金花的“星光城”被译成“Star City”。其实,这里的“城”丝毫没有“city”或“town”的意思,而是实际意义上的mall。

又如,为了防止身材高大的人在上下楼梯或进出门时不小心受到意外伤害,我们常会看到“小心碰头”的提醒标志,还附上英文“Take Care of Your head”。其实,“小心碰头”的对应英文是Ducking。

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我校二级学院的英文名称

(2014-10-13)

在公开发表的论文中,要求从题目至关键词部分须译成英文。这就涉及单位名称的翻译,具体到高校,就涉及到院校名称以及其二级学院(系)的英文翻译。

校名的英文名称一般比较“恒定”,不应“随意翻译”。例如,西安科技大学的前身是“西安矿业学院”(1958-1998),其英文名称是“Xi’an Mining Institute”; 1998年更名为“西安科技学院”,2003年更名为“西安科技大学”,所以,从1998年开始,我校的英文名称一直是“Xi’an University of Science and Technology”(可简写为”Xi’an Univ. of Sci.&Tech.”)。

下面是我校二级学院的英文名称:

能源学院 College of Energy Science and Engineering

管理学院 College of Management

机械工程学院 College of Mechanical Engineering

建筑与土木工程学院 College of Architecture and Civil Engineering

通信与信息工程学院 College of Communication and Information Engineering

电气与控制工程学院 College of Electrical and Control Engineering

测绘科学与技术学院 College of Geomatics Science and Technology

计算机科学与技术学院 College of Computer Science and Technology

人文与外国语学院 College of Humanities and Foreign Languages

地质与环境学院 College of Geology and Environment Engineering

艺术学院 College of Arts

化学与化工学院 College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

材料科学与工程学院 College of Materials Science and Engineering

理学院 College of Sciences

体育部 Department of Physical Education(可简写为Dept. of P. E.)

继续教育学院 College of Continued Education)

思想政治理论课教学科研部Department of Teaching and Research for Ideological and Political Theory(可简写为Dept. of Teaching&Research for Ideological&Political Theory)

高新学院(独立学院)Gaoxin College

另外,我校雁塔校区地址(中国陕西西安雁塔北路中段58号)的英文翻译应为:

Xi’an University of Science and Technology

58 Yanta Rd(N) Mid-Section

Xi’an710054, Shaanxi, P. R. China

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论文英文摘要范例

(2014-10-13)

范例一(煤炭学报,2004.3.):

超细煤粉颗粒形状分形维数与球磨工艺的研究

杨志远,曲建林,周安宁

(西安科技大学材料科学与工程系,陕西西安 710054)

摘 要:在行星磨完成不同煤的超细粉碎.基于面积-周长法,利用煤粉颗粒的SEM图像结合图像分析软件计算不同工艺条件下的煤粉体的颗粒形状分形维数,结果表明:该方法计算的分维值相关系数多在0.95以上;煤颗粒形状分形是多域度分形;煤颗粒粉碎初期形状分形维数逐渐减小,当粉碎到团聚时间时,其分形维数值反而在增大;含碳量高的煤质在粉碎时,其形状分形维数一般较小;不同助磨剂对颗粒形状分形的影响不同.

关键词:超细煤粉;颗粒形状分形;球磨工艺;行星磨

Study on the relationships between the profile fractal dimensions of coal ultra-fine powders and their grinding technologies

YANG Zhi-yuan, QUJian-lin, ZHOUAn-ning

(Dept.of Material Science and Engineering, Xi’an University of Science and Technology, Xi’an710054,China)

Abstract: The different coals were pulverized into ultra-fine powders on a planetary mill. On the basis of SEM photographs and image analysis software, the profile fractal dimensions of coal ultra-fine particles were calculated by using the Area-Perimeter Method, which produced in different grinding technologies. The results indicated that the Area-Perimeter Method can apply in calculation of the fractal dimensions with its correlated coefficient over 0.95;the profiles of coal particles are multifractals; in the initial period the fractal dimensions decrease with the time whereas the fractal dimensions of coal agglomerates increase with the time; ingrinding, the profile fractal dimensions of coal particles with high carbon content, and different grinding assistant additives have different effects for the profile fractal dimensions.

Key words: ultra-fine coal powder; profile fractal dimension; grinding technologies; planetary mill

范例二(中国矿业大学学报,2008.04):

神府煤不同密度级组分光催化氧化的XPS研究

杨志远1,2,周安宁1,张 泓2,张 群2

(1.西安科技大学化学化工学院,陕西西安 710054;2.煤炭科学研究总院西安研究院,陕西西安 710054)

摘要:利用XPS对比分析神府脱灰煤及其两个密度级组分D3(1.375~1.400 g/cm3)和D4(>1.400 g/cm3)在低温光催化氧化前后表面化学键的变化,结果表明:煤表面主要含氧官能团以碳氧键(C-O)为主,氮的存在形式在D3组分中以吡咯型氮(N-5)和吡啶型(N-6)氮为主,D4组分中主要为吡咯型氮;神府脱灰煤主要是质子化吡啶型氮和吡咯型氮.光催化氧化50 h后,神府煤表面含氧官能团含量减小,碳碳骨架键(C-C)含量增大;煤中内部质子化吡啶(N-Q)转化为芳香环边缘上的吡啶氮或吡咯氮.

关键词:神府煤;不同密度级组分;光催化氧化;XPS

XPS Analysis of Shenfu Coal with Different Density Fraction Under UV Catalytic Photooxidation

YANG Zhi-yuan1,2,ZHOU An-ning2,ZHANG Hong2,ZHANG Qun2

(1.School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Xi'an University of Science and Technology, X i'an,Shaanxi710054,China;2.Geology Institute, Xi'an Branch of China Coal Research Institute, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710054,China)

Abstract: The UV photooxidation of Shenfu coal with different density fraction, which named D3(1.375-1.400 g/cm3)and D4(>1.400 g/cm3), respectively, were carried out in a fixed bed photoreactor. The difference of structural characteristics on the surface of coal and its density fraction were analyzed comparatively using a X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) method. The results show that the main form of oxygenous functional groups is C-O on the coal surface. Three types of coal nitrogen(pyrrolic, pyridinic and quaternary functionalities)in coal and its different density fraction, were found. The main forms of nitrogen on the surfaces of Shenfu coal were quaternary and pyrrolic, while on the surfaces of D3 density fraction were pyrrolic and pyridinic,D4 density fraction were pyrrolic, respectively. After the UV photooxidation of coal samples, the contents of oxygen functional groups of all coal samples decreased, while the contents of C-C increased. Meanwhile, the forms of quaternary nitrogen also converted to pyrrolic and pyridinic nitrogen on the surface of coal.

Key words: Shenfu coal; different density fraction; catalytic photooxidation; XPS

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关于“基于”的两种翻译方法

(2014-10-08)

在科技英语中,特别是在论文题目中,“基于”出现的频次比较高。在多年的英文编辑工作实践中,笔者经常发现有些作者不能正确翻译“基于”,例如,“基于神经网络的煤层气藏随机建模”被译成Stochastic simulation of coalbed methane reservoir base neural network”,其正确翻译应为“Stochastic simulation of coalbed methane reservoir based on neural network”或“Neural network-based stochastic simulation of coalbed methane reservoir”。由此可看出,“基于”的翻译一般有两种:一种是“based on”,而另一种是“based-”。

例一:

基于Web2.0的个人信息环境研究

Personal information environment based on Web2.0

或 Web2.0-based personal information environment

例二:

基于地质预报的煤巷顶板事故防治研究

Prevention of Coal Roadway Roof Accidents based on Geological Forecast Technology

或 Geological Forecast Technology-based Prevention of Coal Roadway Roof Accidents

例三:

基于统一强度理论的条带煤柱设计

Design of strip coal pillar based on the unified strength theory

或 Unified strength theory-based design of strip coal pillar

例四:

基于能量理论的煤岩体破坏电磁辐射规律

EME rules during coal and rock mass failure based on energy theory

或 Energy theory-based EME rules during coal and rock mass failure

-----------------------------------------------------

英文关键词的翻译

(2014-09-29)

学术论文中的关键词是指为了文献标引工作从报告、论文中选取出来的用以表示全文主题内容信息款目的单词或术语。

一篇论文关键词的数目一般是3至8个,最好是4-5个。例如:下面是一篇文章的关键词:

Key words: bridge engineering; concrete thin-wall box-shape structure; structural mechanics method; temperature stress

上述4个关键词都是词组或专业术语,而不是“单词”,所以英文关键词多为词组,一般不要将无实际意义的单词study, research, analysis, development, 等等作为关键词。例如:

Key words: deep; soft; rock; roadway under high stress; numerical simulation with FLAC3D; bolting combined support应修改为Key words: soft rock roadway under high stress; numerical simulation with FLAC3D; bolting combined support

Key words: shallow; coal; the seam; fully-mechanized face; the regularity be shown of the mining pressure; the numerical simulation应修改为Key words: shallow coal seam; fully-mechanized face; mine pressure behavior law; numerical simulation

Key words: college; students; mental; health; credit: system: study; suggestion应修改为Key words: college students; mental health; credit system

这里要特别强调一下,一般不要将冠词(the, a)放置在关键词的前面或中间,也就是说,一般在关键词中不可有冠词(the, a)。

----------------------------------------------------

英文题目的写作

(2014-09-23)

题目(篇名)是一篇论文最脸面的文字,起着画龙点睛的作用。事实上,一篇论文电邮到编辑部后,编辑第一眼要看的是题目,不会有编辑先看论文的内容,再看题目,犹如我们在观察一个人的时候,是从头到脚。所以,题目一定要简明扼要,具有“个性”特色,千万不要重复别人的,要让编辑从你的论文题目中悟出你在创新(创造),正在干别人还没有做过,甚至还没有想过的事情,如果你论文的题目让编辑“一见钟情”,论文刊发的可能性就更大了!

那么什么样的题目才是最吸引眼球的题目呢?根据多年的编辑经历,笔者总结出了以下几条:

(1)题目要简明扼要,开门见山,尽可能的“大”(当然这里所说的大题目必须是在“大”内容的支撑下),例如:

On Capital(Das Kapital)(资本论)

On Practice(实践论)

On Contradiction(矛盾论)

Tunnel reinforcement with rockbolts

Probabilistic risk assessment of highway tunnel

Prediction of blast-induced vibration on existing tunnels in soft rocks

21stcentury-orientedChina’s higher education

China’s library cause development at the turn of the century”

在学术论文的题目中一般不要出现“浅议”,“浅析”,“刍议”等词语。

(2)题目不需要“研究”,“讨论”等,也就是说,在题目中一般不应有research, study, discuss等,

例如:

Research on theevaluationofstability ofgoaf based on BP neural network应修改为Stability evaluation of goaf based on BP neural network

Study onseismic response of prestressing concrete rigid frame bridges with highpiers and long span in deep reservoir应修改为Seismic response of prestressing concrete rigid frame bridges with highpiers and long span in deep reservoir

Research ofsupport technology in deep soft rock roadway in Tangkou coal mine应修改为Support technology for deep soft rock roadway of Tangkou coal mine

(3) 在题目中尽可能少用of, for等介词,以及冠词(a, the),以求题目凝练,例如:

The21stcentury-oriented higher education of China应修改为

21stcentury-orientedChina’s higher education

Study ofstability of the slope and house ofthenew Baota’s import of tunnel应修改为Stability of the slope and house of new Baota tunnel entrance

(4)学术论文题目与一般新闻报道文章题目的区别

相对于学术论文的题目而言,一般新闻报道文章的题目比较“松散”,有可能是一个比较完整的句子。

下面是一些新闻报道文章的题目:

Coroner says Whitney Houston accidentally drowned in bathtub

Drowning killedHouston, but drugs took high toll

Dick Cheney's transplant reopens debate about age

Weight-loss surgeries may beat standard treatments for diabetes

U.S.gasoline hits $3.93 agallon: survey

James Cameron reaches deepest spot on Earth

Deep-sea scientists cheer Cameron's historic dive

Impact of climate change may be underestimated

让我们再看几个学术论文的题目:

Optimal parameterization of conic curves

A method for generating fabric pattern with Xinjiang ethnic style

Teaching system of engineering graphics based on creative configuration design

Prediction of blast-induced ground vibration using artificial neural networks

Stress redistribution and ground arch development during tunneling

A practical use of CFD for ventilation of underground works

Numerical modeling of in-situ stress calculation using borehole slotter test

Simulation and analysis of electromagnetic force on shield of canned motor

Heat transfer efficiency of double glass curtain wall in summer ofChongqing

以上列举的学术论文题目中,没有一个是“完整”的句子。所以,学术论文题目的风格与媒体新闻报道文章题目的区别是比较明显的。

--------------------------------------------------------

英文摘要写作技巧

(2014-09-16)

在发表论文,特别是科研论文时,不管使用汉语还是外语,对于公开发表刊物而言,英文摘要已成为必不可少的内容之一。科研论文的摘要,是一篇独立于全文而存在的短文。如果把一篇论文比作一块铁矿石的话,那么其摘要就是由这块铁矿石提炼成的钢。

1. 英文摘要的重要性

三大世界级检索工具EI( Engineering Index《工程索引》), SCI (Science Citation Index《科学引文索引》), ISTP (Index to Scientific & Technical Proceedings《科技会议录索引》的文摘员主要是根据论文的英文摘要来决定是否收录,他们根本不会,也不可能阅读全文。所以,一篇论文的英文摘要就是这篇论文走向世界的窗口。

我校建工学院一年轻教师仅2012年一年就有6篇论文被EI收录,获得学校奖励12000元。如果通过网络数据库浏览这位教师近几年所发表论文的英文摘要,我们会发现其翻译不仅地道,而且非常规范。

2. 英文摘要写作中所存在的问题

1)作者不重视或态度不端正,认为只要有个英文“摘要”即可,具体表现在,用机器软件直接翻译或者将别人类似论文的英文摘要复制粘贴过来。说实话,“翻译软件”本身没有错,但“不假思索”的完全依靠“翻译软件”会闹出大笑话!

2)英文水平所限

(1)由于英语为非母语,导致词与词的对应。即用汉语写出文摘,然后逐词逐句译成英语。逐词逐句翻译在翻译中是一种忌讳,因为任何两种语言没有绝对的等义词、等义句,所以逐词逐句翻译只能是一种“词码转换”或被戏称为“Chinglish”的中式英文。

例如:有人将“贫困生”按字面译成“poor student”或“poverty-stricken student”,正确的译法应为:student from poor family。

又如:相对于北方,我国南方一些省煤炭资源比较少,统称“贫煤省”,所以千万不要将“贫煤省”按字面翻译成“poor coal provinces”,比较正确的译法应是:provinces with less coal deposit或less coal-deposited provinces。

(2)由于作者对科技英文的特点认识不足,经常使用很多语言或篇幅说明问题,结果使摘要既体现不出科技论文英文摘要“内容准确,概括性强”的特点,又显得繁琐冗长,主题不明。

(3)对科技英文经常使用的典型句型与常用语态不熟悉,译出的文稿近似口语,表达不出论文本身的价值与含量。

(4)由于科技论文时代感很强,文中大量涉及近年来出现的新词汇及外来词,一般词典上找不到,又不知从何去查,曾是科技论文英文摘要撰写的一个难题。如今这一问题可借助于internet上的search engine找到答案。

3)英文水平所限+不重视导致低级错误的出现

在互联网普及之前,在笔者多年的英文编辑实践中,很少碰到非常低级的错误。然而,经年来,随着各种网络翻译软件的出现,在英文编辑工作中遇到的低级错误简直是层出不穷,有的甚至低级到到非常低俗的地步。

前几年,笔者曾遇到一作者将工程上出现频率较高的一个词–可靠性(reliability) –翻译成了dependent sex,而且是在题目中。过了一年多,在这同一作者的另一篇论文的英文摘要中,又出现了“sex”!

3. 英文摘要的写作

1)摘要的构成部分

摘要应包括研究目的(有时可省)、研究方法和手段、研究结果、结果分析和结论等几个主要部分。重点应突出作者研究的创新性结果,主要结果和结论应交待清楚,不能含混不清,似是而非;也应避免对标题的重复和一般性内容的叙述,最大限度地增加摘要的信息量;应注意语言的表达,避免难以理解的长句,用词应通俗易懂、简洁准确。

2)需要注意的几个方面

(1)写成报道性摘要,不能写成指示性摘要(做了、分析了、提出了)。

(2)应当重点写出研究的结果,特别是本研究的新发现、新规律、新关系。

(3)方法、模型类论文,应当交代清楚构建的原理、步骤,建立方法、模型的特别之处和具体特点,不能泛泛地说“很好、很快等等”。

(4)英文摘要更应当写出体现水平的结果(创新性的)。

要特别注意:摘要和论文的结论不是一回事,但也不是结论中写了摘要中就不能写,结论中的主要结果应当在摘要中体现。

   
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